Accuracy of Sensory Information Three reasons for believing in the accuracy or inaccuracy of sensory information is interpretation, perception, and knowledge. First, interpretation is a communication process designed to reveal meanings and relationships of our culture and the way in which we were raised. Interpretation is when one believes certain situations through one’s own thoughts and beliefs. Next, perception is one’s sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli (Saladin 2010). Through the perceptual process, we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are critical to our survival.
Personality Analysis Paper PSY 405 Tammy Poe September 28, 2011 Jerry Mote A large number of psychologist and philosophers have examined, tested, researched, and analyzed theories associated with behavior and personality. Theories of personalities provide the significant factors, influences affiliated with personality development as well as the ideas of traits; one’s culture, religion, beliefs, and factors such as disabilities, drugs, alcohol, and influences such as a parent, teacher, object needs or wants, and other affects related to personality. In this paper the subject to explain is the theoretical approaches of humanistic and existential theory, and the dispositional approach theory. The paper includes theoretical approaches, and the role of personality and behaviors. Including personality characteristics that contribute to these theories, along with the interpersonal relationship’s associated with the humanistic, existential, and dispositional theories.
For example, one psychologist may use descriptive psychopathology to which will strive to provide answers for symptoms or mental illness. Either way, psychopathology is formally used to study mental illness or the distresses which may be affecting an individual. The issues of the abnormal psychology will assist in the study by the way we would use it in the attempt to capture interest, trigger concerns, and demands our attention. It also brings us to form and ask certain questions pertaining to any study. Psychopathology is not the same as psychopathy, which has to do with antisocial
In general, these assessment tools rely mainly on self reported behavior. Designed to ask people to respond to different questions about themselves, then the results of the assessment are used to make predictions about his or her behavior. Even though these personality assessment instruments are by no way perfect, they can be a proactive way of obtaining information about people. Under certain settings, these personality assessments are mainly used in clinical environments. They can also be used for assisting employers and job hunters find productive career matches.
Environmental Cues and Behavior S. Renee’ Porter Psychology 460 Natasha Barnes June 23, 2013 Environmental cues are elements that convey important information or trigger an affective reaction. These cues have significant influence in normative behaviors relevant to environmental context. The power environmental cues have on normative behavior can be illustrated by injunctive norms/social norms. The most important aspects of human functioning are distinguished in three overarching goals. These goals are, 1) normative/ to behave appropriately, conform to social norms or rules, 2) gain/ behavior to maintain or improve one’s resources, and 3) hedonic/ behavior to maintain or improve the way one feels right now.
This model contains standard testing providing comparison of individuals with similar traits allowing prediction of behavior outside an environment of testing. Utilization provides information to classify illnesses and disorders as well as defining a treatment program. Assessments within the psychological community have included such models to fabricate interventions, reinforcement, and desensitization of clients (McIntire & Miller, 2007). Significant Event in Development of Psychological Testing and Historical Roots A majority of psychologists find truth in that differences within individuals are a primary factor because of genetics and employment of aptitude assessments; superior groups of individuals can be raised systemically. Alpha and Beta assessments were conducted by Robert Yerkes during the First World War.
Comparison and contrast essay: William Sheldon’s Type and Personality Assessment and Myers-Briggs Typology Index. Have you ever asked yourself why people act in one way and others in different ways? As we already know, people have different physical and psychological aspects and these traits influences their way of life. These aspects have been studied and classified by some scientists and we are going to focus on and compare two theories: William Sheldon’s and Myers-Briggs. The first theory, William Sheldon’s, who is an American psychologist, proposes that body types are related to personality characteristics.
Compare and contract the aims and methods of Trait Theory with those of Personal Construct Theory Looking at the Trait theory and Personal Construct theory (PCT) both are concerned with the psychological study of individual differences and personality traits. The trait theory is based in the experimental approach, while personal construct theory is concerned with a phenomenological approach into the study of individual difference (cited in Butt, 2012). This essay will begin by briefly describing the trait theory and PCT, following on from that it will go on to highlight both theories aims and methods used in relation to personality traits. Using Eysenck and Rachman’s trait theory (objective) and Kelly's PCT (subjective) I will evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of both theories, and make comparisons in relation to methods used in order to measure or investigate individual differences and the knowledge that each method produces, and how each theory can explain individual differences /personality traits (cited in Butt, 2012). I will also briefly look at both theories in terms of power relations and structure / agency which can have a great influence on individual difference and personality traits.
In addition the social cognitive perspective of George Kelly. His theory of personal constructs will also be briefly outlined. The similarities and differences of each approach will be evaluated to gain an insight into the main premise of these theories that emphasise the subjective view of the individual and what they contribute to an understanding of personality. The essay will conclude in suggesting that these theories offer a better and more useful insight into how people interact with the environment than some other theories, for example trait and psychoanalytic. There are many similarities between Rogers’ and Kelly’s approaches to personality.
Gordon Allport’s Influence in the Field of Psychology Gordon Allport’s influence in the field of psychology, and particularly the psychology of personality was significant and lasting. He expanded on rigid concepts of trait theory by recognizing and acknowledging the variability of traits. He literally defined prejudice for two generations of psychologists, and participated in the establishment, governance, and support of many institutions dedicated to the study of psychology. Dr. Allport wrote two “famous” (Pettigrew, 1990) volumes on personality: A Psychological Interpretation (Allport, 1937) and Pattern and Growth in Personality (Allport, 1961). While much of the prevailing dogma focused on universal approaches to understanding personality, Allport believed that there should be a balance of both individual and universal approaches.