Psychology Assignment Attachment John Bowlby was a British psychoanalyst born in 1907. He believed that mental health and behavioural problems could be attributed to early childhood experiences. He was commissioned by the World Health Organisation to investigate the effects on children’s development of being raised in an institution. To formulate his theory of attachment Bowlby drew on the work of Psychoanalytical theorists and Ethological theorists, such as Konrad Lorenz. ‘The time is ripe for a unification of Psychoanalytical concepts with those of Ethology’ J Bowlby 1953 Bowlby’s theory begins with the idea that we are all born with innate drives, this comes from the Darwinist theory that all characteristics have survival value, Bowlby would consider attachment to be one of these characteristics.
The major areas of development include biological, cognitive and social and emotional development. Both of these psychologists were concerned with the study of understanding the area of cognitive development specifically in children and were considered to be constructivists. Constructivism is the theory in which “learners actively construct their own knowledge based upon the things they know now and have known in the past” (TFL resources, 2006). This essay will seek to compare and contrast the theories of psychologists Piaget and Vygotsky and will critically look at their theories to judge which aspects are appropriate for the long term. Jean Piaget focused his research on studying children and observing their thought processes.
Psychodynamic theory backs up Carlisle’s theory by the explanation of the ID, controls the seeking pleasure and impulses. These people suffer from weak egos developed by poor social skills and other factors dealing with everyday life. This makes a person over time turn to the fantasy when stressed or feelings of emptiness. The dark side starts to become stronger and takes over the “good” side, they start being controlled by their “Dark side”. “Over time the dark
Psychology- as explored through the eyes of Carl Jung and Abraham Maslow When Carl Jung says, “Everything that irritates us about others can lead us to an understanding of ourselves”, he very aptly describes the role that Psychology plays in exploring and examining the processes of the human brain and how that impacts our behaviors and personality. Comparing the theories of Jung and Maslow could take hours since each one had enough to say about what their beliefs were about the human condition. But while Carl Jung focused on how the unconscious affected our personality (Introversion and Extraversion), Abraham Maslow focused on the integration of self (Self-Actualization Theory). Jung believed that there were active centers in the unconscious
Freud’s work is considered important because he showed that childhood experiences and relationships significantly influence the development of personality in later life, (Beaver et al 2002). Freud’s theory was psychoanalysis and he believed that the personality comprised of three parts the Id, the Ego and the Superego. Freud developed a stage theory; these stages are called psychosexual and are linked to the physical pleasures associated with each stage. Freud argued that psychological health as an adult depended on how each of these stages is dealt with, and whether or not optimum gratification is gained from each stage. Freud believed that unsuccessful completion of any of these stages leads to a child becoming fixated
I do believe the unpleasant arousal and negative emotions would simply be temporary, if the experiment was conducted in accordance to American Psychological Association (APA) ethical guideline, and the IRB. I would judge the ethics of the study based on the way the researchers and experimenters handle the debriefing. I feel that deception, at times is a necessary tool social psychologist need to understand and generalize certain phenomena. Elm’s discusses the need for deception for increased external validity. He argues that if participants know what behaviors and emotions researchers
Psychodynamic Aspect Antisocial personality disorder is mainly characterized by the sufferer’s flagrant disregard of other individuals’ rights. (Hansel & Damour, 2008). In other words, people with antisocial personality disorder are insensitive to other people’s feelings and interests; instead they solely focus on their own interests and feelings alone. Individuals with this disorder do not feel remorse or guilt for their wrong doings. The Psychodynamic application and treatment of antisocial personality disorder is linked with the assumption that the sufferers are born into dysfunctional families with physical abuse tendencies, cruel, and are emotionally turbulent (Akhtar, 1992).
Sensitive parenting is the most important factor in a child’s psychological development – discuss This essay will explore the concept of sensitive parenting and will look at how the dynamic interactions between parent and child inform Attachment Theory a model which measures child development. This model, pioneered by Bowlby is posited within the principles of a psychoanalytic and biological perspective (Bee, H.L., 2000). Child attachment can be classified into two main types, secure and insecure, by using a standard laboratory assessment known as the “Strange Situation” developed by Ainsworth, insecure attachment was divided further into sub groups, ambivalent and avoidant (Ding, S. & Littleton, K. 2005). Whilst discussing attachment theory which utilises the concept of an internal working model other approaches in terms of understanding how parenting affects child development will be explored. Theoretical positions such as social learning theory which lies heavily on behaviourist principles will be looked at, parenting styles where patterns of parenting will be discussed and inter-generational transmission which serves to perpetuate society’s inequalities and disadvantages with negative connotations for a child’s psychological development (Ding, S. & Littleton, K. 2005).
However, functionalism failing to acknowledge this is therefore considered to be an approach which has traditional ideology which is outdated. This therefore shows flaws to the functionalist approach and therefore points out the weaknesses within the functionalist approach. In conclusion, the functionalist approach has many strengths and weaknesses about the way in which society functions and the needs it requires. It strengths are seen in the way in which it explains the basic needs and function of society, these explanations can be used by other sociologists to improve and maintain an adequate society. However, other approaches, such as Marxism and Feminism have criticised functionalism due to its lack of acknowledgment of exploitation and inequality, which occurs within
Psychological Dimension of our interpretations is not readily apparent to ourselves and others because we unconsciously couch it in aesthetic, intellectual, social, or moral abstractions to relieve the anxiety and guilt our projections arouse in us. Mr. Norwood divides the process of accumulating the final