Not only does social rejection cause stress and aggression in a young child, it results in stress among the family due to the child’s behavioral changes. Robert M. Hodapp. “Mental Retardation: II. Contextual Issues.” Development and Disabilities
(Freud) Aggressive & violent behaviours? (Observational learning: Abusers - foster parents) From the painful & traumatic childhood Will had, perhaps that was his way of:- getting a sense of power (from the powerless situation he was in with the abuses he had) getting attention( from the neglect & lack of attention he had with foster parents?) indirect, non-verbal “call-out” that he had been tremendously hurt & abused low self efficacy? (Albert Bandura) Q3) To include the following factors: Counselling session with the psychologist & hypnotist To elaborate: Failure of the counselling sessions was not only attributed from the therapists but also from Will who had consciously & deliberately put up resistance, barrier & shield from them getting deeper into his
This can then lead to abnormal behaviour in the future. For example, a person fixated on the anal stage is usually described as being very obsessive and particulate. An advantage of the psychodynamic approach is that it shows the importance of childhood experiences in being mentally healthy. It also shows how abnormal behaviour can be a result of unconscious conflict, which is why a person may not understand why they’re behaving a certain way or why different therapies aren’t working for them. A criticism of the approach is that it isn’t scientific or researched.
Outline and evaluate the psychodynamic approach to abnormality The psychodynamic approach states that abnormality is a result of childhood conflict. It states that unresolved childhood conflict can become repressed and can appear as abnormal behaviour. According to Freud, the personality consists of the ID, the superego and the ego. An over-developed super-ego can result in anxiety. The psychodynamic approach also includes psychosexual stages which occur at different times during a child’s development.
Psychopathic and Sociopathic Behavior Sean Thomas McGarvey Brevard Community College Abstract Word Count = 77 Essay Word Count = 729 Total Word Count = 806 Abstract Both Psychopathic and Sociopathic behaviors fall under the category of Antisocial Personality Disorders. Both disorders center on a person’s inability to feel empathy and to relate to other people, along with lying to and manipulating others for his or her own benefit. Many criminals have one of these two disorders. Personally, I am a Borderline Sociopath, meaning that I have many tendencies of a Sociopath, however I am nonviolent and not as likely to commit a crime. Psychopathic and Sociopathic Behavior Psychopaths and Sociopaths, for the most part, “[are] mainly characterized by lack of empathy towards others that is coupled with display[s] of abnormal moral conduct and inability to conform with the norms of the society” (depressiond, 2011).
Melroy writes that in early childhood development, there is a split in the infant psychopath. There are two sides to that and one is the “soft me”, which is vulnerable inside and the “hard not-me” which is intrusive, punishing outside (neglectful or painful experiences). Once that infant experiences an outside pain he starts turning inward, kind of a way to protect himself from being hurt. The develop what’s called a character armor, that allows them to distrust everything outside, and refusing to allow anything in. That child don’t even like to identify with his own parents, instead he sees the parents as a malevolent
The lack of emotional care can possibly result in no attachment being formed. It can also result in permanent harm to the infants social and emotional development. The study conducted by Hodges and Tizard (1989) was of ex-institutional children. He aimed to see effects of children who had suffered early privation. He also wanted to test Bowlby's Maternal deprivation (or privation) hypothesis.
Dominance of id may lead to destructive tendencies and uninhibited sexual behaviour.On the other hand superego represents the sense of morality. It develops in the phallic stage of development through identification with our parents and if it is too strong it may result in guilt experiencing pleasure and the development of adult anxiety and depression. Ego, however, operates on the reality principle and it is the conscious self. It develops through early childhood and tried to balance the instinctual demands of the id for gratification and the moral rules provided by our superego. If ego fails to achieve a balance, psychological disorders may results.
Bowlby’s theory of attachment is still relevant in understanding child care issues, but in a world dominated by parental issues psychological intervention may become a way of life. “Privation, when there is failure for a person to form an attachment to any individual- through a series of early different carers or family discord, Distortion occurs through lack of stimulation and affection” ( Woods, 2006, pg 139 ). Attachment issues may continue on in later life, a person could have trouble forming relationships. A person may feel the need to seek help with these issues and a good medium for help would be short term Psychodynamic
In addition to the subordinated spouse, the children of violent homes must also be considered as victims whether or not they have been physically abused or not. While the many methods by which abuse is inflicted vary, the effects it has on the mental and emotional health of its victims remain alarming. Of all these effects, one of the most vital and long term ones is the effect on a child's formation of gender and identity. Statement of the Problem Childhood is typically the time where core values and identity is formed. Most theories on human growth and development advance the idea that individual identity is a result of combined internal and external factors in an individual's environment.