In the work The Spirit of Capitalism and the Iron Cage, Max Weber examines the connection between the values of Protestant asceticism and the emergence of the capitalist spirit. It is not easy to discern whether Weber aims for a correlational or causal tie between these two phenomena. In one section Weber states the spirit of capitalism, “expresses a type of feeling which is closely connected with religious ideas,” but later goes on to say, “the spirit of modern capitalism…was born…from the spirit of Christian asceticism,” (Weber, 112). Whatever Weber’s intended claims, his theory only succeeds in presenting a correlational relationship between Christian asceticism and the birth of the capitalist spirit. The lack of depth in Weber’s argument is displayed in the facts that only two Protestant groups are consistent with his theory and that there were early emergences of capitalistic structure in predominantly Catholic areas before the (Protestant) Reformation.
Reading religious works, Europeans form own options about church which caused rulers start to challenge the church’s power. The making of the printing press helped spread this secular idea. Some contributors to the reformation were Desiderus Erasmus, Thomas More and Martin Luther. During the reformation Martin Luther stressed that all people with faith are equal and can interpret Bible without priest. He also posted his 95 thesis statement which launched a movement for religious reform.
I think that Theodore Roosevelt played an important role in the development of Progressivism between 1900 and 1920. Progressivism is a political attitude which favours various reforms through government action. Progressivism was the general response to the vast changes brought by industrialization; it was an alternative to both the traditional conservative response and to the more radical streams of socialism and anarchism. The term progressivism is usually associated with left-winged parties in the United States. The progressive party was the most successful third party in modern American history during this time period.
The ideas of Social Darwinism and Social Gospel were a form of justification brought on by Americans in the late 1800s and 1900s. Social Darwinism was created by using Charles Darwin's theory of natural evolution and natural selection, 'the survival of the fittest'. Social Gospel was a moral reform movement promoted by Protestant clergy such as Walter Rauschenbusch and Washington Gladden. It was a liberal movement within the American Protestantism that applied to biblical teachings and Christian ethics to a variation of social and industrialization problems. Especially issues of social justice such as economic inequality, poverty, crime, racial tensions, child labor, inadequate labor unions, poor schools, and the danger of war.
Unfortunately, when it comes to answering the question which is the most critical in the entire book ; ‘determining an objective telos of mankind and all creation in order to form an economic framework around that ultimate purpose’, Cavanaugh sourced his answer in all the wrong places. His references are, If I may say, nearly always to ‘church tradition’ or ‘papal teaching’, and the writing of historic theologians such as Augustine and Thomas Aquinas rather than to the Word of God. Even when these traditions and teachings are based on sound doctrine, his choice is to base authority on human words rather than on the Word of God, displaying his hesitancy to give the final glory to
Socialists, therefore, endorsed collectivism to strenghten the idea of fraternity - society is desired to work together while being bounded by sympathy and comradership, that are believed to symbolise the the bonds of common humanity. In contrast to liberalism, whereby liberals draw a clear distinction between 'the individual' and 'society', socialists do not recognise the 'individual' as a term separeted from society. This reflects on the idea of collectivism because the ability to pursue goals comes from working together rather than self-reliancy. Collectivists argue that human nature has a social core, regardless of social groups which have been formed. Thus, all 'classes', 'nations' and 'races' are meaningful political entities.
Conclusion and Future Challenge V. Bibliography ii I. INTRODUCTION AND WORLDVIEW SUMMARY The subject of this paper is Liberation Theology. This worldview grew out of Catholic discontent with economic and social injustices during an age of activism in the 1960’s. The author selected this topic because of the often over looked biblical significance that Jesus placed on
The progressives made the first comprehensive efforts to grapple with the ills of modern urban-industrial society. Speaking of origins of Progressivism, a few things can be mentioned. First of all, severe decline in agricultural prices; secondly – economic depression. It also springs from two bodies of belief and knowledge – evangelical Protestantism and the natural and social sciences. The way Progressivism worked was through gathering the necessary information and applying it in solving the problem; by mandating government and blending religion and science into a view of how human should behave.
Throughout the periods 1450 to 1750, Christianity both promoted and impeded societal changes through major roles of authority, abuse of wealth and power, and strong influences on the overall society. While some scholars may believe that the change was paramount to Christianity during this time, others would tend to disagree. During the early 19th century, Christianity impeded and promoted changes using intellectual, social and political aspects. The Organized Church impeded change using intellectual factors. The religion of Christianity promoted enlightened people to question the ideology of their God and lean more towards a scientific method in order to look at the world around them.