A higher response rate can be obtained if follow-up questionnaires are sent, but this can add to the cost and time. However, some sociologists may choose to use questionnaires as there is no need to recruit and train interviewees thus saving costs. Another reason as to why some sociologists choose not to use questionnaires when conducting research is because of the fact that questionnaires are snapshots of social reality of the time when the respondents answer the questionnaires. This means that they fail to produce valid pictures as they do not capture how people’s attitudes can change over time. On the other hand, questionnaires tend to be used by sociologists as they provide less ethical issues than other research methods.
John Stuart Mill was a hedonist and accepted that happiness was of great importance and stressed that happiness is more important than pleasure. Mill believed that the quality of pleasure decides on whether an act is good; for example, human pleasures such as reading are what is good however animal pleasures such as eating is not as good. This meant that he felt that the quantity of pleasure did not matter, it was only the quality. Mill continues to develop his argument by saying that everyone deserves happiness so therefore, everyone aims towards their own happiness so everyone should aim for the happiness of everyone. He believed in universalizability which means what is right or wrong for one person in a situation is right or wrong for everyone.
However, token economy has issues, such as that you could argue that you are taking away patient’s basic rights to use as rewards. Another criticism which shows why token economy may not be and appropriate and effective therapy is that it has low ecological validity; it may not transfer into the real world. Once patients are away from institutions, they often discarded desirable behavior as there are no longer any rewards to reinforce it. Another disadvantage is the ethical issues surrounding the use of behavioral therapy. It could be argued it doesn't really help the patient; it just makes their behavior more acceptable to others.
However, other people may disagree with this and believe that a deontological ethical system is not defensible because it cannot encourage human beings to act morally, as they will not gain enough satisfaction out of doing so, as they would in a teleological ethical system where the ultimate end or goal is human happiness. People may say that it can be hard to keep to deontological ethics when we cannot see how they will immediately benefit us, making teleology much more appealing. In my opinion deontology can be defended because deontologists do not judge actions by their consequences, this is a positive aspect of deontology because it does not allow people to do bad things to secure good consequences, if we really consider human happiness, at first it sounds appealing and simple. However, if all actions were done to secure human happiness then many evil deeds would be permitted, for example it may secure a psychopath with maximum happiness if he can rape and murder women and children. Therefore teleology would permit this as it would maximise the psychopaths happiness.
This doesn’t mean we should all go out and be terrible people just so we will appreciate our good experiences, but rather that we should learn from our mistakes. Lance Armstrong’s view of life is similar to this; he says that sometimes life is fun, and great, and other times it is horrible, but whether good or bad our experiences make us stronger people. It is these experiences which give our lives meaning. Meaning and value however, are completely different issues. So how can the value of one’s entire life and worth be translated into monetary values?
The weaknesses could be their belief in free will is in opposition to the deterministic laws of science or the issues they investigate, such as consciousness and emotion, are amongst the most difficult to objectively study. In counselling I believe there is a higher chance to address individual’s needs as client centered therapy works on a one to one basis. This specifically enables the individual services users’ needs to be met. To enable client centered therapy I believe a good counsellor is needed without a judgmental approach. Also the service provider is needed to have empathy and know how to sympathise with the client.
This Is a strong argument however, we cannot please everyone, so surely it makes more sense to bring happiness to as many people as possible. John Stuart Mill recognised that happiness in itself was a complex thing and that different people were happy as a
He also includes its "fecundity" (will more of the same follow?) and its "purity" (its pleasure won't be followed by pain & vice versa). In considering actions that affect numbers of people, we must also account for its EXTENT. John Stuart Mill adjusted the more hedonistic tendencies in Bentham's philosophy by emphasizing (1) It is not the quantity of pleasure, but the quality of happiness that is central to utilitarianism, (2) the calculus is unreasonable -- qualities cannot be quantified (there is a distinction between 'higher' and 'lower' pleasures), and (3) utilitarianism refers to "the Greatest Happiness Principle" -- it seeks to promote the capability of achieving happiness (higher pleasures) for the most amount of people (this is its "extent"). Act and Rule Utilitarianism We can apply the principle of utility to either PARTICULAR ACTIONS or GENERAL RULES.
The MBTI introverted personality type says that introvert type does not get energy from outside. It means an introverted person develops good energy from themselves. Nowadays, many people wish to become a good leader, but many have the preconception that an extroverted personality is required to become good leaders. Moreover they believe introverts have disadvantages in our social activities. However, I believe this misconception distorts the truth because an introverted personality actually qualifies for leadership in our current society.
Many people always like to think, what it is the real definition of “Utopia”? In my opinion I really don’t think there is an exact definition of utopia; Utopia can be whatever your mind stimulates it to be. It can mean one thing but also mean another thing. It is whatever you think makes you happy and how it can fulfill your life into one perfect and loving opportunity. Just how Rousseau states, “Nature never deceives us; it is we who deceive ourselves”, we all take into consideration of what’s in front of us and how everything that you visualize and do has an effect on our lives.