The oxygen comes from the respiratory system. The respiratory system moves air through the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea lungs and bronchus to the alveoli where the gas exchange between oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs. Lungs are spongy tissues with alveoli and blood capillaries. Breathing occurs because of the expansion and contraction of the lungs. The bronchi carrying the air sub-divide into smaller braches called bronchioles and at the end of each bronchiole are the alveolar sacs.
Therefore air can move into the lungs via the trachea and bronchi and provide the lung with oxygen. Before expiration, gas exchange takes place on the gas exchange surface, the alveoli. As alveoli are tiny air sacs, they provide a large surface area which speeds up the rate of diffusion. After air moved into the lung, oxygen diffuses down the concentration gradient through the epithelial cells of the alveoli and through the endothelial cells of the capillaries. Furthermore they diffuse through plasma membranes of red blood cells and bind to the haemoglobin.
Human Respiratory system Task 1 Name of part | Function | Structural features which enable it to carry out its function | Trachea | Transports air from the throat to the lungs. | 1. Rings of cartilage to keep the trachea open for air flow.2. The trachea has cilia and mucus which trap particles and prevent them from entering the lungs, the cilia then carries the mucus to the top of the trachea where is usually then swallowed and destroyed by the stomach acid. | Bronchi and the bronchioles | Continue to transport air from the bottom of the trachea where it divides into the two bronchi; which continue to subdivide, the bronchioles, as they go deeper into the lungs and regulate air flow to the alveoli.
Very low blood pressure. This is where gas exchange takes place. Oxygen passes through the capillary wall and into the tissues, carbon dioxide passes from the tissue into the blood. | | Veins and venules | Veins and venules carry blood to the heart (always deoxygenated apart from the pulmonary vein which goes from the lungs to the heart). They have thin walls.
Apex is upper portion, extends above clavicle, and base is lower resting on diaphragm. Gas exchange takes place between capillaries and alveoli. * Type 1 alveoli- gas exchange cells * Type 2 alveoli- produce surfactant, a lipoprotein that lowers the surface tension w/in alveoli allowing for inflation. * Functions of the Pulmonary system: * Ventilation: movement of air into and out of the lungs through breathing. Accomplished through cycles of inhalation/exhalation.
Write the equation for the chemical reaction that occurs for the transposrt of carbon dioxide as bicarbonate ions in blood:__ 3. The three basic steps of respiration are pulmonary ventilation, external respiration and cellular respiration. 4. For inhalation to occur, air pressure in the alveoli must be less than atmospheric pressure; for exhalation to occur, air pressure must be greater than atmospheric pressure. 5.
The thermal inertia of the heated aluminium plate surface and the intravenous tube creates a time delay which reduces the response time. If the intravenous tube is made of thin plastic (less than 3mm) to improve heat transfer, it very easy to rupture the intravenous tube and spill the blood
The main functions of the blood are to transport, defence, regulation and clotting. The oxygen is carried from the lungs to the cells of the body in red blood cells. Carbon dioxide is carried from the body’s cells to the lungs. Cellular waste such as water, carbon dioxide, lactic acid and urea are carried in the blood to be excreted. Hormones, internal secretions that help to control important body processes are also transported by blood to target organs.
Spirometry A breathing test called Spirometry will often be carried out to assess how well your lungs work. This involves taking a deep breath and exhaling as fast as you can through a mouthpiece that is attached to a machine called a spirometer. The spirometer takes two measurements – the volume of air you can breathe out in the first second of exhalation and the total amount of air you breathe out. You may be asked to breathe into spirometer a few times to get an accurate reading. The readings are then compared with average measurements for people your age, sex and height, which can show if your airways are obstructed.