Structure of the Cardio Vascular and Respiratory System

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Cardio vascular and respiratory system Describe the structure and function of the cardiovascular system (P5) Blood vessels Arteries and arterioles | The arteries and arterioles carry the blood away from the heart (always oxygenate apart from the pulmonary artery which goes to the lungs). They have thicker muscular walls, and have smaller passageways for blood (internal lumen) they contain blood under high pressure. | | capillaries | Capillaries are found in the muscles and lungs. It is microscopic – one cell thick. Very low blood pressure. This is where gas exchange takes place. Oxygen passes through the capillary wall and into the tissues, carbon dioxide passes from the tissue into the blood. | | Veins and venules | Veins and venules carry blood to the heart (always deoxygenated apart from the pulmonary vein which goes from the lungs to the heart). They have thin walls. Have larger internal lumen. Contains blood under low pressure. They have valves to prevent blood from flowing backwards. | | Components and function of Blood Blood is used to transport materials around the body, and protect against disease. Blood contains plasma, a liquid that contains dissolved substance, cells and cell fragments. These include the following: Red blood cells | Transport oxygen – this cell in the blood of vertebrates that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the tissues. The red blood cell is disk; it contains hemogbin and lacks nucleus, | | White blood cells | Protect against disease - any of various blood cells that have a nucleus and cytoplasm, separate into a thin white layer when blood cells are separate from plasma cells, and help protect the body from infection and disease. White blood cells include – neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. | | Platelets | Help the blood from a clot – platelets are found in

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