Unit PD OP3.3 Understand the Impact of Acquired Brain Injury on Individuals 1.1 Define acquired brain injury. An Acquired Brain Injury is sudden onset of brain damage that was sustained after birth. Acquired Brain Injury is not hereditary, congenial or a genetic disorder. Acquired Brain Injury can result in physical, cognitive, behavioural and emotional changes, the symptoms can vary dependant on the extent and the locality of the trauma. These changes may not always be permanent dependant on the ABI (Acquired Brain Injury) but most often do cause substantial alterations in the person’s character and physical abilities.
More severe traumatic brain injury complications include pooling of blood in the head (hematoma), epilepsy, amnesia, paralysis, coma and death. Additionally, studies have suggested a link between traumatic brain injury and the development of both Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (Dawodu,
DEM 201 – Dementia Awareness. DEM 201.1 - Understand what dementia is 1.1 – Explain what is meant by the term “dementia”. “Dementia are the signs and symptoms caused as a result of specific diseases such as Alzheimer’s or a stroke that involve the damaging of brain cells; as the brain cells die the person with a dementia will lose their ability to do things they are used to doing as different parts of the brain are damaged. Dementia affects both older and younger people and the decline in the person will get worse as more brain cells are damaged or die.” 1.2 – Describe the key functions of the brain that are affected by dementia. The main areas of the brain that are affected by dementia in terms of causing difficulties with their functions are: * Frontal Lobe – This is the part of the brain that controls behaviour, movement, personality and the interpretation of what is around us * Parietal Lobe – This is the part of the brain that controls the language we use, spacial awareness and recognition of places, objects and people.
I believe that Nick’s symptoms are likely caused by peripheral nerve damage. Peripheral neuropathy is nerve damage that occurs in the arms and legs. The feet and legs are more likely to be affected before hands and arms. According to the National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, symptoms of peripheral neuropathy may include: * Numbness or insensitivity to pain or temperature * Tingling, burning or prickling sensation * Sharp pains or cramps * Loss of balance and coordination Nick has some of the symptoms that have been listed. There could be some damage to the central nervous system but not very severe or the symptoms that Nick exhibits would be more severe.
Unit 237 - Dementia Awareness Understand what dementia is Explain what is meant by the term ‘dementia’ Dementia describes a range of signs and symptoms that occur to an individual when part of the brain is affected by certain diseases and various conditions such as Alzheimer’s. Symptoms that may include memory loss and difficulty thinking. Dementia is progressive, which means the symptoms will gradually get worse over time. Dementia affects people at different stages of life, affects different parts of the brain and at different speeds. Describe the key functions of the brain that are – affected by dementia The Brain Brain cells Spinal cord Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Temporal lobe Cerebellum Occipital lobe Explain why depression, delirium and age-related memory impairment may be mistaken for dementia The above symptoms are very similar to Dementia and this is why people get mistaken, it is very important that an individual with symptoms gets assessed by a GP to determine the condition.
Acquired cerebral palsy is the condition where the child gets affected after the birth, injuries to the brain at the early stage of the life, infections like meningitis and encephalopathy, brain ischemia, injuries to head and even child abuse are some of the major causes. In majority of the cases the cause of the disease is not known. Genetic disorders, congenital abnormality in brain, fever or infection during birth are some of the
Cognitive functions are associated with certain areas of the brain. With the case of Phineas Gage this shows how brain damage can affect a person's cognitive functioning. Though Phineas Gage survived his accident it showed that with certain parts of the brain becoming injured a person's cognitive function is affected. References Kotowicz, Z. (2007).
Unit 4222-256 Understand the impact of Acquired Brain Injury on Individuals 1.1. Acquired Brain Injury is any damage to the brain that occurs after birth. 1.2 Possible causes of Acquired Brain Injury are:- · alcohol or drugs · disease such as AIDS, Alzheimers, cancer, multiple sclerosis or Parkinsons disease · lack of oxygen caused anoxic brain injury (for e.g. injury caused by near drowning) · Physical injury such as impact (or blow) to the head, which may occur in vehicle or sporting accidents, fights or falls · stroke - when a blood vessel inside the brain breaks or is blocked destroying local brain tissue 2.1 The initial effects of Acquired Brain Injury are:- · loss of consciousness · increased fatigue (mental and physical) · communication difficulties is very common · slowing down in how fast they process information, plan and solve problems · changes to behaviour and personality, physical and sensory abilities and thinking and learning 2.2 The long term effects of Acquired Brain Injury can be different depending on the severity of the injury and the area of the brain which is affected. The main effects of brain injury can be grouped into three areas:- Physical Cognitive Emotional and Behavioural Physical Effects · fatigue - excessive tiredness, tasks such as getting dressed or walking around can require much more effort after brain injury.
DEM-301 Understand the Process and Experience of Dementia 1.1 Describe a range of causes of dementia syndrome. Fixed cognitive impairments are due to a single incident. Traumatic brain injury may cause generalised damage to the white matter of the brain or localised damages. A brief reduction in the supply of blood and oxygen to the brain may lead to this type of dementia. A stroke or brain infection can also be the cause of dementia.
As the mass impedes on the brain or blood vessels, symptoms such as seizures and speech problems can occur. Epilepsy, classified as a brain disorder, occurs when a group of nerves in the brain generate abnormal electrochemical impulses. These impulses cause stroke-like symptoms including strange sensations, irrational behaviour, muscle spasms, convulsions and loss of consciousness. A hemiplegic migraine is a specific type of migraine headache that often runs in families. Migraines, throbbing pain in one area of the head, are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting and sensitivity to light and/or sounds, according to the Genetics Home Reference.