Unit Pd Op3.3 Health & Social Care Level 5

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Unit PD OP3.3 Understand the Impact of Acquired Brain Injury on Individuals 1.1 Define acquired brain injury. An Acquired Brain Injury is sudden onset of brain damage that was sustained after birth. Acquired Brain Injury is not hereditary, congenial or a genetic disorder. Acquired Brain Injury can result in physical, cognitive, behavioural and emotional changes, the symptoms can vary dependant on the extent and the locality of the trauma. These changes may not always be permanent dependant on the ABI (Acquired Brain Injury) but most often do cause substantial alterations in the person’s character and physical abilities. ABI's are very complex and no two persons can expect to have the same difficulties, although some of the changes will be similar they are rarely the same. 1.2 Describe possible causes of acquired brain injury. There are many causes of an ABI. Traumatic Brain injury is caused by physical traumas, for example an accident, neurosurgery, head injury or even an assault. Brain injury can also be caused by non-traumatic circumstances such as a stroke, brain tumours, infections, hypoxia, ischemia or substance abuse. Brain damage caused by neurodegenerative disorders are not classed as an ABI. Injury is referred to as either open or closed. A closed injury is when the brain has been damaged from the brain being bounced around the head or severe shaking, for example when in a road traffic accident. Open brain injury is a lot less common than closed and is incurred when a foreign object enters the brain, usually fracturing the skull. An example of this is a bullet entering the brain. These injuries are usually more localised and result in specific damage to the brain. Although traumatic brain injury is classed as part of ABI, it is different as ABI takes place at a cellular level and can affect different zones within the brain. Traumatic
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