Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel located in the brain starts to either leak or rupture. This is usually caused by high blood pressure and weakened walls of the vessel caused by an aneurysm. There are two types of hemorrhagic stroke, intracerebral and subarachnoid. An intracerebral hemorrhage is when an artery in the interior of the brain bursts and the blood moves into the surrounding area causing damage. In a subarachnoid hemorrhage, a blood vessel also bursts, but instead of being on the interior, the vessel is located near the surface of the brain.
It is called the FAST test: F= Facial weakness A= Arm weakness S= Speech problems T= test all 3 signs and call 999 2.4 Describe the potential changes that an individual may experience as a result of stroke. Some of the physical changes that occur in the individual after suffering a stroke are psychological, behavioural and emotional changes take place after a stroke are in part caused by the physical damage to the brain. When the brain cell is damaged the sensations and parts of the body controlled by the cells can no longer function
· brain defects or injury: Defects in or injury to certain areas of the brain have also been linked to some mental illnesses. · prenatal damage: Some evidence suggests that a disruption of early fetal brain development or trauma that occurs at the time of birth -- for example, loss of oxygen to the brain -- may be a factor in the development of certain conditions, such as autism. · substance abuse: Long-term substance abuse, in particular, has been linked to anxiety, depression, and paranoia. · other factors: Poor nutrition[->1] and exposure to toxins, such as lead, may play a role in the development of mental illnesses. PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS: · severe trauma suffered as a child, such as emotional, physical or sexual abuse.
The cause of the brain cells dying and the deterioration of the connectors is not fully known. Vascular dementia is a form of dementia caused by damage to the brain through deprivation of oxygenated blood. Causes are preventable and include high blood pressure, heart problems, diabetes and high cholesterol. Rarer forms of dementia are Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and Biswanger’s disease. 1.2 Types of memory impairment Whilst long term memory loss is experienced, short term memory loss can cause more problems, although it is not the same in every case.
According to Brant, W. (2007) “Patients may present with virtually any neurologic defect, but they most commonly present with limb weakness, paresthesia, vertigo, and visual or urinary disturbances”. A lot of times the initial symptoms are “sensory disturbances, weakness, visual loss, abnormal gait, diminished dexterity, diplopia, ataxia, vertigo, or sphincter disturbances” (Brust, J. 2012). There can also be other more general symptoms such as malaise, fatigue, or headache caused by the initial disruption in the CNS (Brust, J. 2012).
Describe the mechanism(s) by which strokes occur. Cerebrovascular Accident- condition in which brain tissue is deprived of blood supply. The most common stroke symptoms are: • Numbness or weakness (paresis) of the face, arm, or leg, sometimes only on one side; • Confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech (aphasia) • Trouble seeing • Trouble walking or dizziness; loss of balance or coordination (ataxia) • Severe headache with no known cause 1. Ischemic stroke (~83%)- blood vessel supplying brain tissue is blocked by a blood clot a. cerebral thrombus b. cerebral embolism 2. Hemorrhagic stroke (~17%)- A blood vessel breaks open, causing blood to leak into the brain 3.
Alzheimer’s disease- Alzheimer’s disease is caused by the build-up of proteins in the brain which form into “plagues and tangles”, these in turn will cause a loss of connection between nerve cells and cause cell death and loss of brain tissue. Early symptoms of Alzheimer’s can be lapses in memory, problems with language (forgetting words or their meanings) and poor visuospatial skill’s (gaging distance, ability to see in 3D). People can also suffer from depression or anxiety, they could become withdrawn and lose interest in daily activities or hobbies or have poor initiation. As the disease progresses sufferers can develop more pronounced memory problems and lose a sense of time and place, they may forget where they are or have difficulties recognising their own family. Vascular dementia- Vascular dementia is caused by the flow of blood and oxygen to the brain being interrupted causing the death of brains cells, this is called an infarct.
Associated features in DLB are falls, disturbances of consciousness, autonomic dysfunction and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorderFrontotemporal dementia (FTD) usually presents with language disturbance and/or behavioural difficulties (either disinhibition or apathy),Korsakoff's syndrome is a brain disorder that is usually associated with heavy drinking over a long period. Although it is not strictly speaking a dementia, people with the condition experience loss of short term memory.Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease Prions are infectious agents that attack the central nervous system and then invade the brain, causing dementia. The best-known prion disease is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, or CJD.HIV-related cognitive impairment People with HIV and AIDS sometimes develop cognitive
Assessment Task 3 – Independent research project Multiple Sclerosis Definition Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system where messages between the brain, spinal cord and optic nerves are disrupted. Symptoms and effects include: Motor control problems such as muscle spasms, fatigue, continence problems, and constant pain. The strain of dealing with this condition can result in social and psychological problems for example depression. Other symptoms are cognitive dysfunction and can result in the person having difficulty maintaining a train of thought or keeping up with a conversation when there are too many topics being discussed, and respiratory dysfunction, which courses an impairment of respiratory muscles. (http://www.msaustralia.org.au/understanding-ms) Key Issues
Unit 4222-668 Stroke Awareness 1.1 A stroke is a serious condition which happens when he blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts. It can also be causes by a clot on the brain, but can also be caused by a clot that can travel to the brain through the blood vessels. When oxygen and nutrients from the blood being supplied to the brain are studied stopped then brain cells begin to die and thus stops the brain from working properly. 1.2 Sometimes a stroke can be miss diagnosed or delayed as it starts mild or of a non normal sign or symptom of a stroke. Some of these can be: * Diabetic Hypoglycaemia * Bells Palsy * Migraine Headache * Intracranial Tumour/Abscess * Epilepsy * Some infections such as septicaemia, encephalitis * MS * FND In my role I have seen a couple of occasions when a service user has been miss diagnosed.