Lipids and carbohydrates allow fuel to be utilised as energy, whilst proteins help maintain cells by growing and repairing them (Rolfes, Pinna & Whitney 2012, p.9). Essential vitamins are those that the body requires but must gain them from food and help release energy from protein, lipids and carbohydrates (Rolfes, Pinna & Whitney 2012, p.10). Whilst minerals are utilised by the body to put structures together such as teeth and bones and water is essential to carrying waste away and for the transportation of minerals (Rolfes, Pinna & Whitney 2012, p.11). However, people require differing amounts of these nutrients throughout their life cycle and are also dependent on gender, age, lactation and pregnancy (National Health and Medical Research Council 2014).
Lipids (fats) are a critical component of our daily diet in providing vital sources of energy. They provide protection by cushioning our organs and supply valuable nutrients such as fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) and other essential fatty acids (EFA’s). However a diet containing too much saturated fat (which can be found in animal and diary products) may have a detrimental effect on our health, leading to many types of illness/disease. There is a common misconception that if a person partakes in exercise they will have a resultant low cholesteral level, thus enjoying a certain immunity to diseases relating to high fat intake. This is not the case.
Angela Johnson GE150 08/03/2014 Unit 7 Lipids versus Carbohydrates Your body stores energy in the form of triglycerides, each triglyceride contain three fatty acid compounds bound to glycerol chemical backbone. Most triglycerides are stored in adipose tissue made up of fat cells distributed throughout your body. Carbohydrates are stored as glycogen a large number of carbohydrate molecules are made up hundreds or thousands of smaller units of glucose, a simple sugar. Your body can also convert carbohydrates into fat for long term energy storage. Carbohydrate is the universal energy cell.
It is a polysaccharide that functions as a carbohydrate store and is an important part of the human diet used as an energy source. It is a polymer of glucose sugar which means it is composed of many glucose molecules linked in a chain. Plants store the starch instead of simple sugars. Cellulose is an insoluble substance which is the main part of plant cell walls and vegetable fibres such as cotton. It is also a polysaccharide consisting of chains of glucose monomers.
Is excess protein good or bad for you? Protein is a vital nutrient to the bodies on a daily basis and it is essential to the bodies’ normal functions. Next to water, protein is the most plentiful substance in the body and most of it (60%-70%) is located in the skeletal muscles. Protein is made up of amino acids and serves as a building block for repairing the muscles, bones, cartilage, skin, hair, nails, and blood. It also assists in synthesizing enzymes and hormones, maintaining fluid balance, and regulating such vital functions as building antibodies against infection, blood clotting, and scar formation.
These EFA’s consist of two primary lipids, Omega-3 (alpha-lenolenic acid) and Omega-6 (linoleic acid). They assist the body in many ways, of which include: * Hormone production * Functioning and proper development of brain and nervous system * Regulation of blood pressure and blood clotting mechanisms * The breakdown and transportation of cholesterol These lipids also play a part in the development of healthy skin and hair. (Rohland, 2014) Lipids are able to partially cross a plasma membrane by the formation of a bilayer. This layer covers the hydrophobic tail, which stays behind buried inside of the membrane, allowing the polar head to be exposed to and in contact with the water. Cholesterol helps to form the bilayer membrane that surrounds each cell within the body.
Calcium rich sources are dairy products and leafy green vegetables. Phosphorus is needed for growth, and maintenance of cells and tissues and the genetic building blocks. Phosphorus is found in nuts, poultry, meat, and fish. Magnesium helps to supply energy production and helps balance calcium levels. Magnesium is found in black walnuts, almonds, cashews and green leafy vegetables.
This is very important as this allows osmosis occurs in our bodies. Plasma is forced out of the capillaries under high hydrostatic pressure to form tissue fluid. Some of the tissue fluid is return in capillary ends and some is returned to the blood by the lymphatic system. Plasma carries glucose, ions, waste product, respiratory gases and hormones around the body. Small molecules such as oxygen and carbon dioxide can diffuse in and out of the cells through the phospholipid bilayer; ions and glucose molecules enter and leave the cell via the channel proteins.
(Swann, 2008) The pancreas also makes amylase (alpha amylase) to hydrolyse dietary starch into disaccharides and which are converted by other enzymes to glucose to supply the body with energy. Hypothesis: Most enzymes are very specific for a certain substrate. The active site on the enzyme molecule forms a keyhole into which the substrate fits like a key. The substrate molecule is then broken up into many smaller pieces. “The higher the reaction temperature, the more kinetic