In the context of 100 Years, To what extent was the Unification of Germany responsible for the start of the First World War? _____________ The claim that the 'Unification of Germany' was the largest contributing factor to the cause of the First World War is a common sentiment held by many Historians. However there are many that challenge this opinion on the grounds that it is a "crude generalisation1" to exclude the plethora of contributing factors just to shift the blame to Germany and its leadership. In reality, the startling growth of Nationalism did lead to discrepancies between the great powers; the culture clashes and differences in tradition proved to be almost alienating and provocative to neighbouring nations which is a huge factor when considering the start of a war of this magnitude. Furthermore, the intricate system of alliances spawned during this era meant diplomacy became an impossible task that only the most expert politicians could manoeuvre.
The Christian and Nazi approaches shared some common outlooks. Both organizations showed respect for traditional cultural values, such as the importance of family life and in their hostility to communism. Also, in Lutheran Protestantism a tradition of respect for the state and nationalism was very important. However, Hitler brought up as Catholic, associated his beliefs clearly hostile to that faith. He wanted to replace Christianity with a new Aryan faith.
Why did Germany go to war in 1914? There are many reasons as to why Germany went to war in 1914 such as fear of encirclement, various alliances formed, internal policies and domestic and military factors. I personally think the most important reason was due to their internal politics. Germany was formed as a country in 1871 and so felt like they had to prove themselves as a nation to the rest of Europe. They did this through aggressive policies, which they hoped would achieve their aim and build up their empire.
How successful was Bismarck in unifying the German state during the period 1871 - 1890? It is argued that Bismarck was both successful and unsuccessful in unifying the German state. In the period of 1871 - 1890, Bismarck faced many factors that both hindered and helped in unification, such as the nature of the constitution, his relationship with the national liberals, his relationship with the Catholics and the creation of the new working class. The North German Confederation was mainly Protestant however when the southern states joined, the population became nearly a third Catholic. Bismarck did not help to make the Catholics feel welcome in the Confederation.
The Victorian period, up until the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, was therefore a time of religious confusion, but also, as we will see, of great charity, as well as of birth of new beliefs. What role did religion play in the lives of citizens of this period and their society? The Victorian era was marked by the immense influence of the Church of England in religion, of course, but also in politics- being linked to the government meant it had its hand in certain social decisions, such as the oppression of dissenters. This naturally caused friction amongst people of other faith, especially the Catholics who had previously been stripped of many of their civil rights, which were only returned to them in 1827 by Parliament. They had a long wait until 1840 to see the tax-supported status of the Anglican Church be removed, making them equal once again.
Examples of her decisions: Choosing to support Spain’s enemy (the Dutch Rebels) which essentially sets a declaration of war. She was also more reluctant to execute Mary of Scotland in fear of the neighbouring French, rather than Spain, as Mary of Scots was French. Elizabeth’s refusal to reign in people such as Francis Drake, perhaps due to not wanting to be seen as backing down (weak). She also gained financially from such
She would make a new prayer book to please the catholic and then change it to English to please the Protestants. During Mary’s reign, persecuted Protestants looked on Elizabeth as their saviour. Many Protestants thought that Elizabeth would turn the country firmly back towards the Protestant religion. In my analysis of Elizabeth’s religious settlement it is clear to see that this is not totally the case. Out of the eight main points of the settlement, I found that Elizabeth had rules that would please both Protestants and Catholic’s.
One of the major events that assisted the fall of the Holy Roman Empire was Thirty Years’ War. The event that started the Thirty Years’ War was “defenestration of Prague.” Two of Ferdinand’s officials were thrown out a window. The Lutherans violated the Peace of Augsburg by acquiring German Bishops, Calvinists converting princes, and Jesuits reconverting princes to Catholicism. The Calvinists and Catholics had many advantages because of that which made the Lutherans fear the Peace of Augsburg would be negatively impaired. The Lutheran Princes felt it necessary to create the Protestant Union and in retaliation the Catholics formed to Catholic League.
Although it is true that Germany was surrounded by an alliance system, indeed an extensive alliance system did surround Germany, whether they posed a threat or not is questionable. In 1904 Britain created the entente with France, and Russia joined three years later resulting in the Triple Entente. Although it could be argued that Germany felt threatened by this alliance system as it seemed to encircle Germany, it is essential to note that an ‘entente’ does not have the same status as an official treaty and many historians render it to be a mere ‘handshake’ or an ‘expression of good will’. In contrast, Germany seemed to maintain a more secure treaty as she was a member of the triple alliance with Austria- Hungary and Italy. These countries had officially declared their allegiance towards each other so therefore it could be argued how Germany did not feel encircled as she was in a stronger position due to her secure alliance
The two people who stand out during this time period are Martin Luther and John Calvin. They both took a stand against what they believed was wrong. Luther did not agree with the idea of indulgences, or the paid remission of temporal punishment, and Calvin wanted to be independent of the Church. The Church was not pleased with these outcries, and persecuted these men as heretics. The Church was criticized for a large number of things by the Protestants.