The study showed that parental mediation is important for children to learn pro-social behaviour because they help the children to understand the moral message behind the pro-social programmes which allow and made the children more pro-social in their actions and behaviours. On the other hand, there are
Describe and evaluate any two theories in developmental psychology. (moral development.) The social Learning Theory states children’s behaviours can be influenced through ‘Observational learning’. Albert Bandura (1977, cited Gross 1996) believed that children of all ages developed a moral understanding of right and wrong by observing and imitating models that had a social connection to the child for example, parent, sibling or anyone the child may admire. However Jean Piaget (1932) believed that children’s moral development was based on the cognitive processes, and therefore conducted several studies to generate a better understanding of a child’s thought process and how that effected there moral judgment.
Their thought process is more idealistic. Vygotsky's theories stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition. Vygotsky believed in a continuous development versus the thought of stage based development. He believed that while children can develop knowledge and lead in their own development, development cannot be separated from social context. Meaning a child will only learn things within their instructors
E6 – Describe the initiatives which influence the provision of challenging environments for children C1 – Evaluate how the two initiatives contribute to the provision of an enabling environment for the children Rudolf Steiner was an influential initiative for the provision of challenging environments for children. Steiner designed a curriculum that is responsive to the developmental phases of childhood and the nurturing of the child’s imagination in a school environment. Steiner thought that schools should cater to the needs of the child rather than the demands of the government or economic forces, so he developed schools that encourage creativity and free-thinking. His teaching seeks to recognise the individuality of the child and through a balanced education, allows them to go into the world with confidence. "The need for imagination, a sense of truth and a feeling of responsibility – these are the three forces which are the very nerve of education."
Unit 3 Question 2 E5: Describe TWO (2) strategies which the setting may use to empower children to develop independence and self-reliance The importance of children’s communication skills In terms of empowering children, communications skills are critical. Being able to communicate helps children express their needs and feelings and make friendships with other children. Some children who experience difficulties in managing their behaviour are likely to have difficulties communicating. This means that helping children gain communication skills should be a major focus of your work with them. Communication skills used by children helps children to express their feelings, manage their anger, helps to negotiate with others, helps to understand the feelings of others, and also helps children respond appropriately to others.
Child development theories support planning for learning and play in child care settings. Tina Bruce’s child development theories “favour a holistic approach to teaching young children which focuses on creativity, play and first-hand experiences.” (Pound. L, 2009, pg.13) She believes that free-flow play is important for children as it promotes their independence and allows them to make choices and also make mistakes. This allows them to learn from these mistakes and enhance their learning. Bruce states that “The importance of opportunities to act as independent learner, making choices and mistakes with an emphasis on self-motivation.” (Pound.
Material deprivation can also extend to before formal education, with middle class young children being given educational toys, whilst working class children are far less likely to receive these expensive toys and are more likely to be given non-educational toys. This is arguably one of the most important factors, as it is a huge hindrance on the intellectual development of an individual to be cut off from information that their peers have access to, and that they need to be effective in their progression through the education system. Cultural deprivation is a theory stemming from home background that is argued to have an effect on educational achievement. Cultural deprivation is the inadequate socialisation and pre-primary education of young children. Cultural deprivation can include speech codes, the way parents interact with their children and the values children inherit.
This can affect planning as practitioners may have to think and plan activities for children where there is a possibility that positive and negative reinforcements can be put into action in the setting, for example; praising the child when they have achieved and giving children time outs think about what they have done ‘Skinner divided the consequences of actions into three groups; Positive reinforcers, negative reinforcers and punishments’ (Tassoni, P, et al, 2007: 84). Albert Bandura’s social learning theory states that he believed children’s; parents, family, friends and teachers should be powerful role models and figures for children to imitate, for example; behaving in a way that promotes acceptable behaviour in the setting. This can affect the planning and provision of learning opportunities for children in a setting as practitioners will have to plan activities and experiences for children that will enable them and will encourage them to socialise and communicate with other children and staff ‘In social learning theory Albert Bandura (1977) states behaviour is learned from the environment through the process of observational
Nevertheless, her conclusion is balanced. We want kids who can benefit from both of these approaches to family life. They can socialize in their communities, and connect to kin, but at the same time all children must master the social skills so as to be equipped for the future. Lareau characterizes the behaviors of working class and poor families as “sustaining of natural growth.” Among the benefits of the “natural growth” approach are important social skills including self-organization of time, ability to hang-out in a neighborhood in interesting and enjoyable ways, and knowing how to be unobtrusive around adults. While these skills are valuable, they do not align with the skills, attitudes, and behaviors valued in schools.
”! (Psalms 139:14). One might ask the question: "If theories are so useful, why do we need so many?" Having a multitude of theories allow us to see how children develop from a variety of different vantage points. This paper will illustrate the following (1) how I view the course of child development as continuous (2) how my own personal child development theory would be a blend between Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental theory and Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory (3) how I feel environmental and cultural influences play a large role in a child’s development and (4) how I would incorporate my theories into the classroom.