Theoretical Approaches in the Use of Counselling Skills

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Amanda Ford Unit 2: Theoretical Approaches in the use of counselling Skills Introduction Within this essay I will be Explaining key characteristics of Humanistic theory, psychodynamic Theory and Cognitive Behavioural Theory. From this I will summarise the key strengths and limitations of the three main approaches to counselling. Then I will explain the concept of the integrative model. I will follow this by assessing the advantages and disadvantages of the integrative model. Finally I will explain the role of theory in relation to helping relationships. Outcome 1- 1.1 Explain key characteristics of Humanistic Theory, Psychodynamic Theory and Cognitive Behavioural Theory. The humanistic approach to counselling was originated by Carl Rogers. He believed that all human beings have the ability to learn and use self- actualisation. Carl Rogers states ‘ The organism has one basic tendency and striving- to actualize, maintain and enhance the experiencing organism’ (Rogers, 1951, p487). But for a person to be able to grow and self- actualise they need to be in an environment that provides them with congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy. The Psychodynamic Theory works with feelings that are in the unconscious mind, the subconscious and it is about going back into the clients past and understanding the causes of their beliefs, ways they then behave, thoughts and feelings. People throughout their lives may build up shields to mask these painful feelings, but they still will affect the way the person is as they are often hard to face. These shields are demonstrated in behaviour. Freud came up with the developmental method from child to adult (oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital stage), that he taught and thought that if an adult has not properly been through these stages through their childhood they can be identified, addressed and worked
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