Limited resources stop their progress causing their social status to remain static, resulting in limited education that produces more unintended pregnancy. Social barriers have slowed efforts to solve the problem of teen pregnancy. Sex education traditionally focused on both the biological aspects of sex to teach how a baby is created and encouraged abstinence to prevent unintended pregnancy. Sex education, although widely available, is often too little and too late too have much of an impact. The focus is on reproductive biology rather than on teaching adolescents the skills needed to handle a relationships and family.
Interestingly in the Rutter study those who were adopted before the age of 6 months tended to show a more marked improvement compared to their older counterparts. This seems to coincide with Schaffer and Emerson’s Glaswegian infant study which showed that children below the age of 6 months treat everything indiscriminately having not formed an attachment. So naturally by definition the Romanian infants below 6 months couldn’t and didn’t suffer privation and so therefore didn’t suffer the effects of it later. However with the Rutter study it is hard to establish cause and effect. Many of the children suffered cognitive deficits but this might have rather been a result of a lack of substantial intellectual stimulation within the institutions as opposed to privation.
When an infant has had an attachment and it has been broken. There is research done into deprivation by Bowlby. This is his Maternal deprivation hypothesis, which stated the belief that if an infant was unable to build a "warm, intimate, continuous relationship with its mother", it would then result in having difficulties building relationships with other people and also the risk of behavioural disorders. This hypothesis says that relationships that are discontinuous or where there are separations becomes unstable which causes the development of the relationship to be disrupted. It focuses on how important an relationship between a mother and child is.
To Vaccinate or Not to Vaccinate Vaccinations are given to people to prevent diseases and other illnesses. Times have progressed to children given the vaccinations as well; however, more and more parents aren’t allowing for it to happen. From a parent’s perspective, it can be interpreted that they fear ‘fatal side effects’. On the other hand, I feel that there is not much of a risk towards the vaccinations; children should get their vaccinations in order to save them. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (ProCons.org, 2015 Page 1), most childhood vaccines are 90%-99% effecting in preventing diseases; at least 2.5 million children are saved every year.
The introduction of contraception has led to couples having smaller families, therefore meaning that children now tend to receive more attention from their parents. Similarly, parents are also able to care for their children better due to the introduction of the welfare state and child benefits. Climbie’s case and ‘Every Child Matters’ has led to the improvement of social services and child protection, meaning childhood is much safer now than it was 50 years ago. Children are also in better health due to the NHS, meaning more children survive childhood now than ever before. All children can now receive state education up until the age of 18, meaning they are better educated and can achieve much higher in adulthood, whilst experiencing a longer period of youth.
Family background can effect a child's development by the family's values the culture and the way the child is encouraged and cared for all can effect the child development. The child environment can effect the development of the child e.g. Housing condition , opportunities for play and educational. Poverty and deprivation can affect the child's development because Lack of money can lead to poor nutrition and lack of opportunity and also lower expectations. Children and young people in the care system are more vulnerable,often due to the lack of stability and attachment disorder this can affect their emotional ,social and academic development.
The time children spend in day care is associated with negative effects in social development. More hours in day care during a child’s early years is associated with less social competence and cooperation, more problem behaviors, negative mood, aggression, and conflict. Negative effects of day care on social–emotional development persist throughout early childhood and adolescence. Day care is linked with poorer average outcomes when children spend more time in center care, enter day care at an earlier age, or are in lower-quality care. Maternal sensitivity is strongly linked to the effects of day care on children’s social development and is the most crucial predictor of children’s development, even when children spend long hours in day care.
When shown together there evidence provided a way of proving how levels of security in these relationships have substantial impact upon infants development. It is important to mention that the “strange situation” technique has received criticisms surrounding ethics with regards to intentionally inflicting distress upon infants by purposely separating them from their attachment figure however it has been argued that this situation is something that does occur naturally in an infants life. The ecological validity of the research and its ability to be generalised within different cultures has also been questioned as the study used only a sample of westernised participants. For Bowlby the IWM only had capacity to change in the period of infancy after this it is fixed for the rest of a persons life therefore a link should be able to be demonstrated between infant attachment classifications and adult attachment classifications. Continuing from the work of Bowlby and Ainsworth the adult attachment interview was developed by Main, here an adults ability to integrate childhood memories of relationships with attachment figures into working models of relationships was assessed identifying in accordance to Main three
Separation anxiety 3.Reunion behaviour 4.Stranger Anxiety. One of the biggest weaknesses of Ainsworth’s experiment was that it may not just measure the attachment types of the infant but more so the quality of the relationship between the infant and caregiver. Second of all an experiment by Main and Weston found that infants behave differently depending on the parent that they are with. Therefore this could mean that SS doesn’t actually fully measure what it is meant to which automatically decreases the validity of the strange situation as a measurement of attachment type. On the other hand some may argue that the only relationship that is of relevance is your primary caregiver, which is the
Conflicts and dilemmas that can arise include bad behaviour displayed by children attending the day care, parents and carers disagreeing about certain ideas about the children, phones and other forms of communication devices may cause concern, particularly when carers breach the boundaries as to where and how they are allowed to use these devices, children taking risks, confidentiality, child rearing practices, family beliefs and cultural and/or religious beliefs. Bad behaviour displayed by children can include hitting, pushing, biting, not sharing toys even though they are the property of the nursery and not their own toys that they had brought in from home, bad language used towards other children or staff members. Parents may have their own way of dealing with this type of behaviour