Gender roles and the function they serve in our society have been known to be a complex system of statuses, viewpoints, and other elements that bring together a particular type of stratification within our culture today. Talcott Parsons developed a model for this system of stratification that analyzed the popular mid 20th century form of the nuclear family. In his article, “Sex Roles in the American Kinship System,” Parsons lays down his beliefs that the roles we play as male and female are essential to creating a functional and productive kinship. Through setting out a particular structure that will potentially ensure that competition and conflict will be avoided, Parsons asserts that these kinship groups act as functioning units of stratification within our society. This paper aims to clarify the strengths of Parsons’ arguments, such as the functionality and effectiveness of certain systems within our culture, while contrasting the outdated viewpoints which he presents that might not be as applicable in today’s modern times considering the amount of social changes and open opportunities that are now available to both sexes.
His findings into attachment radically challenged the prevalent behaviourist theory of Watson of learned infant attachment in response to constant stimuli and the psychoanalytical theory of Freud that attachment was based on biological needs or ‘cupboard love’ theories as unreliable. (Custance, 2010). Within this essay I will attempt to describe both Harlow’s and Ainsworth research methods and compare and contrast their findings and criticisms. Harry Harlow’s work on attachment focused on the bond between infant and mother. Harlow wanted to investigate whether attachment was based on the ‘cupboard love’ theory of Freud and Watson or on Bowlby’s suggestion that attachment was an innate tendency in response to warmth and tactility.
Also this essay will discuss the impact on children and adults of disrupted attachment and separation. Bowlby’s theory of attachment is the idea that children form a two way attachment with their primary caregiver, and this relationship should be warm, intimate and continuous in order for the child to develop properly. Bowlby believed that the relationship between a mother or primary caregiver and their child was most crucial during the first 18 to 24 months of life and that is, was this time, which affected later socialisation. He also thought that there was a sensitive period in the first few years of life and if an attachment was not formed. In addition he suggested the idea of monotropy, which is the suggestion that infants tend to direct attachment behaviours towards a single attachment figure, and that there is one special bond and this is typically between a mother and its child.
Outline and evaluate two explanations of attachment (12) An attachment is a bond between two people especially mother and infant. It keeps a physical closeness between the mother and her child and also promotes a healthy environment. Bowlby's Evolutionary Theory of attachments is that the infant bonds with one special attachment figure who is usually the mother because she is special and unique in attachment. The bond with the mother is special because it is different from all other bonds the child makes, this is called monotropy. Bowlby believed that attachment behaviour was innate and had been passed down through evolution for the survival of the infant.
I will also write about how misinterpretation of actions and communication can lead to unwanted effects in a family’s dynamics. Relationships with siblings often begin at some point during the mother’s pregnancy when the older sibling is made aware that he/she is soon going to have a little brother or sister in the household, and it would be their job to help protect the new baby. John Bowlby’s attachment theory can be used when describing a sibling’s relationship. If an infant finds an older sibling to be responsive and sees him or her as a source of comfort, a supportive bond may form (Holmes, 1993, p. 119). Sibling attachment can be further accentuated when the absence of a primary caregiver allows a younger sibling to form a closer bond, as the younger sibling will look to the older for security and support (Dunn, & Kendrick, 1982, p.10) Body As long ago as 1978 B. Aubrey Fisher states that there was an absence of any one dominant theoretical approach to the study of human communication (Barber & Mlcek, 2013, p.2).
Damon G. Brown 12/11/2012 Argumentative Essay Fathers and Child Support Many people believe that the men should pay child support, no questions asked. Don’t get me wrong, yes men should support their children, but there should be stipulations on the whole subject. Also both parties and their life styles should be taken into consideration also. In this essay I will argue that child support is necessary, but there needs to be different guidelines. The system needs to look more in depth to both parties before making a decision.
John Bowlby (1907-1990) introduced modern day psychology to the importance of mother-infant relationships and their dynamics. Bowlby was trained as a psychoanalyst and studied a myriad of concepts from ethology, cybernetics, developmental psychology and cognition all leading him to the formulation of his attachment theory. This theory was sparked from Bowlby’s report on the mental health of homeless children in postwar Europe. Bowlby extensively reviewed then-current material on institutionalized children separated from parents and concluded that in order for a mentally healthy adulthood, “ the infant and young child should experience a warm, intimate and continuous relationship with his mother in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment” (Bowlby, 1969). With this information, Bowlby realized that the current explanation from Freud that infants love their mother because of oral gratification was wrong.
Authoritative and Uninvolved 1 An Assessment on the Authoritative and Uninvolved Styles of Parenting Courtney J. Owens ECE 355 Understanding Behavior & Family Dynamics Instructor: Laura Carlee December 20, 2010 Authoritative and Uninvolved 2 Parenting is a complex activity that includes many specific behaviors that work individually and together to influence child outcomes. Parenting style is often used by parents to control and socialize their children. The adolescent years are critical to the growth and development of a child. The relationships formed between child and parents are based on what parenting style is used in an effort to develop and guide the child. The role of all parents is to influence, teach and control their children.
Attachment theory, as postulated by John Bowlby, sought to achieve just that. Bowlby's aim was to discover the consequences of difficulties in forming attachments in childhood, and the effects this would have on an infant's later development. Drawing on much work in the psychoanalytic literature, such as that of Freud and Harlow, Bowlby formulated the idea that infants develop a close emotional bond with an attachment figure early in life, and that the success or failure of this earliest of relationships lead the infant to form a mental representation that would have profound effects on their later relationships and their own success as a parent. A concept that Bowlby referred to as an internal working model. (Bowlby, 1969) Fonagy et al.
Bowlby claimed that infants need one special attachment relationship that is qualatively different from all others. Lastly, the internal working model which is developed through the monotropic attachment. This model represents the infant’s knowledge about his/her relationship with the primary attachment figure, in other words, the mother. It generates expectations about other relationships, so whatever relationship the mother has formed with their child, whether she is kind and loving, or aggressive and uncaring, the child will develop and have this expectation in mind of all future relationships. For example, Hazan and Shaver (1987) showed that there is a link between early attachment experiences and later romantic relationships.