The article indicates the inconsistency with an “all or nothing” view and instead reminds us to interpret it on a more “how much?” basis. I strongly believe that both nature and nurture play an important role in our upbringing and well into our adult lives. There are arguments throughout this article and many others that state intellectual ability is solely an inherited trait. While I beg to differ the concept of Galton when he suggested that human society would be improved by “better breeding,” I can understand the viewpoint. I can more easily relate to the reasoning that the differences in intellectual ability are a product of social inequalities.
Assess the contribution of functionalist sociologists to our understanding of the family Functionalists see the family as a sub-system of society, which works alongside other factors such as the economy and education system to cooperate harmoniously to meet society’s needs and achieve shared goals. Item 2B discusses the idea that the family’s functions are “essential to the smooth running of society”. This can be criticized and countered by numerous other perspectives and theories in which I will examine throughout. The functionalist ideologies of the family include George Peter Murdock’s (1949) idea of the four essential functions. These include a stable satisfaction of the sex drive, which help prevent a sexual ‘free-for-all’.
Many questions have been raised about whether children need more than ‘cupboard love’ to exist. Do we really need comfort and love to survive? Harlow and Ainsworth’s research work emphasised the importance of attachment with their primary caregiver however their methods were very different. Harlow (1958) and Ainsworth (1950) provided valuable insights into sensitive responsiveness by children and their main caregiver. By comparing the psychologists’ experiments we get a greater insight into children’s requirements not just for necessities like nourishment but their innate need to be loved.
This is called the organic analogy. The human body is made up of various different parts that function together, each part is necessary for the normal functioning of the whole body. Society is made up of various institutions (for example education or family), Functionalists believe that these institutions rely on each other each other which helps maintain social order. If one institution is quickly modified or fails to work with other institutions, society would be dysfunctional and would end up in anarchy. Functionalists compare this with the human body because if one component is unable to work, this often affects other components in the body, which could result in death.
Durkheim argued that society has to feel a sense of social solidarity , he believes that without this form of social cohesion , society would be impossible because each person would pursue their own ‘ selfish’ desires. Durkheim transmits the thoughts that education transmits social solidarity by enforcing ones country heritage and history. This shared heritage acts as start of social solidarity for later life. He also believes school acts as a microcosm of society , expressing co-operation and interactions with colleagues. Talcott Parsons believes that school is a focal socialising agency, acting as a bridge between family and wider society, this is enforced because families and society act on different levels.
The concept of human cloning is controversial in regards to its ethical dimension and the potential risks it can have on humanity. Our society is highly dependent on the development of children with respect to their academics and parents hope nothing more than to see their children be successful in their lives. Henry Maier's, “The Core of Care: Essential Ingredients for the Development of Children at Home and Away from Home,” emphasizes child-care as a prominent part of their development and how the manner parents raise their children influences their behaviors and psychological well-being. The elements presented by Maier and the ethical guidelines in our society will be essential in assessing human cloning in regards to the development of children; it will provide information regarding the safety and the execution of bioengineering. Although human cloning may help sterile couples in having their own genetically similar baby and be a source for treatment and tissue transplants, the risk of physiological harm and the loss of freedom and individuality could damage the growth of cloned children and have detrimental effects on their psychological, social, and intellectual development.
Assess the view that the function of the education system is to select and prepare individuals for their future work roles. Both Marxists and Functionalists agree that education is an institution of socialization to prepare individuals for future work roles, however they both have very different views on the extent to how well it works. This essay will explore those ideas. Functionalists say education is like training for working life, it is based on universalistic standards that will prepare children for their future by channeling norms and values to them through schooling. Parsons used the metaphor of education as a ‘bridge’ to work based on meritocratic principles.
There are positive and negative effects on the social-emotional adjustment of adopted children and their families. These effects come from how the adopted child feels with regards to openness in their adoption, how their attachment is affected with siblings, how preoccupation to adoption affects the adjustment of the child and family and how American families must adjust to Russian/Romanian adoptees’ culture and in contrast how the European children adjust to American life. Many researchers have attempted to investigate the effects of openness on the adoption triad. The term openness describes the many options that are available to biological parents and adoptive couples where more information or communication can be shared with the adopted child. This can range from the biological parents inputting on who adopts their child to exchanging letters or
Franklin Roosevelt once said, “We may not be able to prepare the future for our children, but we can at least prepare our children for the future.” Adult guidance is the most important factor a child needs during his/her growth. Normally, parents take on the responsibility of nurturing their children and shaping their paths. However, some schools find it necessary to include Child Development classes in their curriculum in order to insure that their students can fall into the right places later in life. Those classes take on many significant subjects such as health, religion, interactions with other, growth, and life-affecting choices. There has been an on-going debate whether or not to include such classes during school hours, yet it is clearly evident that Child Development hours are a necessity.
Functionalism is based on the view that society is a system of interdependent parts held together by a shared culture or value consensus. Item A says, "while the family can provide young people with basic values and some useful practical skills." Functionalists believe that families socialise their children and teach them the values and norms of society and the item supports this as it talks about the family providing values. However, the item goes on to say,"it cannot equip individuals with everything they need in order to become fully functioning members of a large-scale society". This supports the functionalist view that the education system prepares young people for their future work roles.