The first stage involves natural pressure driving the oil into the pipelines drilled into the ground in the oil wells. Later, the second stage consists of liquids being injected and pumping out remaining amounts of crude oil. Finally, the last stage involves using heat to force out the last of the crude oil that were previously difficult to extract. Crude oil is a compound in form of a liquid. Crude oil is composed mostly of hydrogen and carbon.
As the source rock goes under further compaction, due to the geothermal gradient the temperature increases. Gradually over time the organic matter breaks down to form a mixture of organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur called Kerogen and then petroleum. This is the process of maturation. Petroleum will form between the temperatures of 50 to 200 degrees. This temperature range is known at the ‘oil window’.
Unlike gas tungsten arc welding, which can’t be used outdoors because of the shielding gas issue, oxy-acetylene equipment can be used practically anywhere. Some Other advantages to oxy-fuel welding include the relatively low cost of equipment, the quick learning curve compared to gas tungsten arc welding methods, and the ability to easily regulate flame temperature by adjusting the gas flow. In oxy-fuel welding, a regulator is used to control the pressure from the tanks and into the hoses. The operator then adjusts the flow rate through a set of needle valves on the torch itself. It’s necessary to establish a constant inlet pressure into the hose, otherwise the needle valves won’t be able to provide accurate flow control, and poor welds will result.
This is because Bentonite clay has adsorbing abilities due to its molecular shape. It has a large area that allows other molecules to adhere to it by the process of intercalation. A way to test this theory is with spectrophotometry. By obtaining the absorption spectrum of a red dye containing PAHs, one can compare that absorption to the absorption of the dye after Bentonite clay has been used to remove PAHs. Materials and Methods: To begin the experiment, the Bentonite clay had to be made.
Layout Strategy: The three bays are designed specifically for lubrication and vacuuming tasks to minimize wasted movement on the part of the employees and to contribute to the speedier service. Supply Chain Strategy: Purchasing is facilitated by negotiation of large purchases and custom packaging. Human Resources Strategy: Human resources strategy focuses on hiring a few employees with limited skills and training them in a limited number of tasks during the performance of which they can be closely supervised. Inventory: Inventory investment should be relatively low, and they should expect a high turnover. Scheduling: Scheduling is quite straightforward with similar times for most cars.
The biggest reserves can be found in USA, Russia, China and India. After centuries of mineral exploration, the location, size and characteristics of most countries' coal resources are quite well known. What tends to vary much more than the assessed level of the resource is the potentially accessible coal in the ground the level classified as proved recoverable reserves? These recoverable reserves of coal are extracted by drilling. Examine the environmental impact caused by the extraction process.
Frack You The process of hydraulic fracturing, commonly known as hydrofracking, has received a lot of attention in recent years. Hydrofracking has been around since the 1940’s but only in the last decade it has become cost effective. Hydrofracking is the simple process of digging deep into the ground, extracting natural gas, then shoot water, sand, and chemicals to fill the gap. Inopportunely, some evidence shows that hydrofracking has not been perfected and is dangerous to the community and environment. Some of these dangers are shown in the documentary Gasland.
MAGNETIC REFRIGERATION BY Ch. Akshay Contents: * Refrigeration * Methods of refrigeration * Magnetic refrigeration * Magneto calorific effect * History * Thermodynamic cycle * Operating principle * Advantages * Limitations REFRIGERATION: Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance. The primary purpose of refrigeration is lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. This work is traditionally done by mechanical work, but can also be done by magnetism, laser or other means. Refrigeration has many applications, including, but not limited to: household refrigerators, industrial freezers, cryogenics, air conditioning, and heat pumps.
6-18). Helps transfer heat and cool engine parts. Cleans the inside of the engine by removing contaminants (metal, dirt, plastic, rubber, and other particles) (fig. 6-19). Absorbs shocks between moving parts to quiet engine operation and increase engine life.