Mental tools like internal and external mediators, speech, writing, scaffolding and shared activities play a significant role in the process of cognition. Language, social environment, and culture influence the child’s learning process. Reciprocal teaching is one of Vygotsky’s approaches widely used in schools today. This approach enables higher level of thinking like summarizing, clarifying, predicting, and questioning within students. In contrast to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, socio-cultural theory states that development and learning have mutual effects on each other.
His theories have many differences to Piaget’s but there are also a number of aspects of their theories which are similar. A. Piaget and Vygotsky had an interest in the study of cognitive development, with a view to explain how, when and why this development occurs, although their views to how this occurs will often differ. A connection between language and cognitive development has been found by both Vygotsky and Piaget; Piaget believed that thought drives language, whereas Vygotsky’s understanding was that language drives thought (Bailey et al 2009). It is also thought by both psychologists that use of speech and language plays an important part in cognitive development. Speech and language, in addition to the concepts used by younger children to order the world, are thought to be used differently than in older children and adults as they will change as they grow and develop.
1. Building a theory of SLA 1) Domains and generalizations Generalizations for a SLA theory (1) A theory of SLA includes an understanding, in general, of what language is, what learning is, and for classroom context, what teaching is. (2) Knowledge of children's learning of their first language provides essential insights to an understanding of SLA. (3) However, a number of important differences between adult and child learning and and between first and second language acquisition must be carefully accounted for. (4) Second language learning is a part of and adheres to general principles of human learning and intelligence.
In this essay, I will compare and contrast the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, who both influenced the more scientific approach to analysing the cognitive development process of the child active construction of knowledge, (Flanagan 1996). Both Vygotsky and Piaget were regarded as constructivists in the field of cognitive development, meaning that cognition is the result of mental construction (Davison, 2006). According to constructivists, a person’s ability to learn is affected by the context in which the person is taught, as well as their personal beliefs and attitudes.
They explore their gender roles, morals, relationships, understandings, and conflicts (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010). Development and Influences Along with cognitive development, identity develops. As the child begins to develop logic, strategic, and abstract thinking; their information processing and problem solving enhances (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010). As a result, children can perceive the consequences and benefits of their choices, which in turn influence how they choose their morals, social relationships, and sexuality. Social development also influences identity.
In the Reggio Emilia approach, children are seen as active and competent learners; and the use of pedagogical documentation reflects this view through exhibiting, analysing and reflecting on children’s learning (Patterson, 2005). Supporting Reggio Emilia’s image about the child, Patterson (2005) asserts that pedagogical documentation is a “powerful tool in advocating for children as complex, capable and resourceful learners” (p.307). So, what is ‘pedagogical documentation’? Many researchers define pedagogical documentation similarly to Alcock (2000), who describes it as “the essential lynchpin for recording and reflecting on past learning, from multiple perspectives, via multiple ‘languages’” (Alcock, 2000 p. 7). In other words, pedagogical documentation is about documenting the children’s learning processes as well as encouraging the thoughts, interpretations and reflections of children, teachers, families and the wider community (Moran, Desrochers & Cavicchi, 2007).
Theories of development. Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980) – Cognitive Piaget's theory was that children construct or build up their thoughts according to their experiences of the world around them. The child's conclusions or thoughts are known as 'schema' (building blocks of knowledge). The child will adapt their schema when new information is received. As a child develops, so does their thinking.
5. Moral development – this is a sub-set of social and emotional development with strong links to cognitive development. The development of morality is about the decisions that children and young people take, the principles that they adopt and their behaviuor towards others. Each child develops at their own rate, there is a
Early childhood is a time of remarkable cognitive development. Cognitive abilities associated with memory, reasoning, problem-solving and thinking continue to emerge throughout childhood. Children during this stage are learning to figure out the world around them. It is hard not to mention the work of psychologist Jean Piaget, One of the key concepts in Piaget's theory is the use of
One similarity is that they both agreed that infants are born with the tools and abilities for intellectual development. They also both agreed that egocentric speech was an important part of cognitive development. But then Piaget focuses on the motor reflexes and sensory abilities, while Vygotsky focuses on attention, sensation, perception, and memory. One big difference in their ideas is that Piaget believed development came before learning, while Vygotsky (1978) stated, “Learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychology function.” Just that difference would make a big difference in their theories all together. Another huge difference is that Vygotsky believed in culture and surrounding environment affects cognitive development.