Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget (1896-1980) studied how children’s thought processes develop and has been very influential in our understanding of children’s cognitive development. He believed that interaction with peers was the most critical factor in children’s cognitive development. ‘He described children as ‘"little scientists," actively constructing their own theories about the world, testing these theories, and adjusting to new information’ (quote taken from Kendra's Psychology Blog at about.com: Psychology). He suggested mental plans - schemas (schemata) function as guides for action, as structure for interpreting information, as frameworks for solving problems. (For full explanation on schemas, conservation, assimilation and accommodation and explanations of terminology see appendix 2).
Unit 22 – Understanding Child and Young Person Development 1.1/1.2 Explain the sequence and rate of development from birth-19yrs. Explain the difference between sequence and rate of development and why the difference is important. Children’s development is continuous, so it is important to look at the sequence and rate of each aspect of development as a way of monitoring their progress. Although children develop in many different ways and at many different rates, the sequence that they follow is understood to be roughly the same. The sequence that children will follow has quite an obvious pattern with the child learning to hold their head up before they can sit, to sit independently before they can stand, to stand independently before they can walk and to walk confidently before they can run.
His interest in children’s cognitive processes developed when he started to notice that children of similar ages made the same kinds of mistakes on test questions. After in depth research, Piaget developed the stages of cognitive development theory. This revolved around the idea that unlike adults, thinking and mental development of children changes qualitatively with age (Passer & Smith, 2013). In order to understand Piaget’s theory, it is important to understand its fundamental principles. The first, Piaget referred to using the term ‘schema’.
Describe and evaluate any two theories in developmental psychology. (moral development.) The social Learning Theory states children’s behaviours can be influenced through ‘Observational learning’. Albert Bandura (1977, cited Gross 1996) believed that children of all ages developed a moral understanding of right and wrong by observing and imitating models that had a social connection to the child for example, parent, sibling or anyone the child may admire. However Jean Piaget (1932) believed that children’s moral development was based on the cognitive processes, and therefore conducted several studies to generate a better understanding of a child’s thought process and how that effected there moral judgment.
EDU10002 Understanding Language and Literature Assessment 1 There are many theoretical perspectives explaining how children develop and acquire language. Two well recognised cognitive psychologists, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, developed theories that addressed cognitive development and learning among children. Both theorists explore the development of a child’s way of thinking and examine the processes in how these developmental stages occur and impact on a child’s acquisition of language. Whilst there are similarities between the two theories, there are also significant differences. Language acquisition is the cognitive process where humans acquire the ability to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate with one another (Friederici 2011).
This can affect planning as practitioners may have to think and plan activities for children where there is a possibility that positive and negative reinforcements can be put into action in the setting, for example; praising the child when they have achieved and giving children time outs think about what they have done ‘Skinner divided the consequences of actions into three groups; Positive reinforcers, negative reinforcers and punishments’ (Tassoni, P, et al, 2007: 84). Albert Bandura’s social learning theory states that he believed children’s; parents, family, friends and teachers should be powerful role models and figures for children to imitate, for example; behaving in a way that promotes acceptable behaviour in the setting. This can affect the planning and provision of learning opportunities for children in a setting as practitioners will have to plan activities and experiences for children that will enable them and will encourage them to socialise and communicate with other children and staff ‘In social learning theory Albert Bandura (1977) states behaviour is learned from the environment through the process of observational
His theory is that children use cognitive behavior when understanding and giving communication. They will use trial and error to get the right words out until they succeed. He believes that children observe adults and other children for the correct way to communicate and repeat the actions they have seen until they get it right. We support this at nursery by speaking clearly and simply and nodding or praising a child for getting a word, sentence or request correct. This is to encourage them to use the correct terms when they wish to communicate.
This theory explains that a child’s cognitive development is about a child developing or constructing a mental model of the world (McLeod, 2009). I believe each child has an idea of right and wrong when he or she is about two. With this thought in mind I plan to show each client how to figure out his or her own morals and build from there. I agree with Piaget with regard to
'Questioning enables teachers to check learners' understanding. It also benefits learners as it encourages enitgagement and focuses their thinking on key concepts and ideas.' (Kyriacou 1995 in Desforges 1995, pg. 126) I am of the opinion that the idea children should work in mixed ability groups is not always a viable option. I feel it is important to take into account the personalities of the children, as learning may be inhibited if one child is particularly domineering or intimidating.
They are both constructivist, holding that children learn through constructing meaning with their world. Where these perspectives diverge is in how each child constructs knowledge, the role of the teacher and how imagination plays into development. There are many beliefs in common between Montessori’s and Froebel’s education philosophies. Both believe in the child's right to be active, explore and develop their own knowledge through investigation. Both see activity as a guide to education and do not believe in repressing it.