Taleb rarely points out data or figures in defense of his arguments and defends the same by saying that it is a mistake to use statistics without logic, but not vice versa. We underestimate the share of randomness in about everything, due to myriad biases we often tend to attribute our successes to our skills and blame bad luck for our failures. Risk taking is described as random foolishness. People are taught to think simple and that simplification is also dangerous. Thus there are two poles, extreme thinkers and simplifiers, both of whom are dangerous.
Self Interest or Privilege Superson approaches the moral skeptic in a way in which helps us to better understand the skeptic’s view but at the same time, by developing a better understanding of the moral skeptic, she is better fit to defeat it. The moral skeptic is aware of morality, yet lacks any interest in abiding by it, rather acting in self-interest. The traditional model of the skeptic dichotomizes morality with self-interest, because it is assumed that the skeptic endorses expected utility and the motives he believes is rational to have (ones that are most in conflict with morality). Rational actions go hand in hand with self-interested actions, and this is identified with promoting the satisfaction of any of one’s desires or preferences but moral ones, or with maximizing one’s expected utility. According to Superson, in order for self-interest to successfully defeat the skeptic it must defeat both action and disposition skepticism, which is where it lacks.
It is believed that the people who create injustice are not naturally good, because they have the power to be just, and the people who suffer injustice can not dole out injustice because they do not have the power to be just. The people believed that to impose injustice is naturally good and to suffer injustice bad. But the wickedness of suffering it far exceeds the righteousness of imposing it. This means that they who have impose and suffered injustice, who have tasted both, are ones who lack the power to do it and avoid suffering it. They are the ones who decide that it is profitable to come to an agreement with each other to neither create injustice or to
Traditional models of decision-making are built on logic and rationality. Although such models may be elegant in the logical structure of their processes, reality shows that decision-making rarely follows such a logical structure. Decision-making processes vary and are often confounded by various assumptions and biases held by the decision makers. Finding a more successful model of decision-making requires recognition of the assumptions and biases affecting decisions, along with recommendations to minimize their ill effects. Bias is a tendency of people to favor information that confirms their beliefs or hypotheses.
The two virtues, certainty and doubt are very controversial. The doubt somebody has can cloud their judement but it can also guide them in making a better decision. On the other hand, certainty can blind someone from seeing their true colors of something. In our modern society, doubt is looked down upon; or viewed as a negative idea. Doubt doesnt always contradict certainty, but instead somewhere in between.
The research is, therefore, unrepresentative of interests of wider population. Secondly, the questionnaires are seen as being inflexible. When the questionnaire’s responses are finalised, the researcher can see little scope for formulating new interests or ideas and exploring them as it can be done in participant observation. Furthermore, the interviewer may collect biased data because in standardised questions he/she already imposes interests of their own and excludes questions that might be important to respondent. Thirdly, where the sociologist has interpretivist perspective, detachment may seem a big barrier to overcome.
One positive aspect of a stereotype is that it allows us to be able to respond quickly to situations we have already been familiar with by way of experience. Another positive aspect of stereotyping is by means of persuasion. All in all, stereotyping is quite a negative way to convey an opinion or view of not an individual, but an entire group of the race or ethnicity in which you believe the individual belongs. What are the negative aspects of stereotypes? One negative aspect is that it makes us ignore differences between individuals; therefore, in other words, we make generalizations.
For example, in the case of lying, a deontologist would argue that lying is always wrong, doesn’t matter even if it holds any potential to creating a greater good. While the consequentialist would say that to lie is a wrong thing to do because it would cause negative outcomes as a result, however lying could still be allowed, knowing that it would lead to the creation of a greater good. While as for a virtue-ethicist would care less on just about lying, but focus more on what does the decision say about his/her own traits and character. So here are several features that make the theory of virtue ethics distinctive compared to the other
Stereotypes like those send ignorant messages and can affect ones opinion about a group of people. Negative stereotypes are always looked down in our world, yet people still make rude remarks about someone’s age, gender, or race. However, there are people who find it okay to perpetuate positive. This can categorize people in ways that promote their race, gender, or age which some may find harmless. Assumptions about groups even though they are considered to be positive are just as damaging as making a negative stereotype.