It creates low expectations and leads to people losing independence, choice and control in their own lives. They are disempowered: medical diagnoses are used to regulate and control access to social benefits, housing, education, leisure and employment. The medical model promotes the view of a disabled person as dependent and needing to be cured or cared for, and it justifies the way in which disabled people have been systematically excluded from society. The disabled person is the problem, not society. Control resides firmly with professionals as choices for the individual are limited to the options provided and approved by the 'helping' expert.
Under the medical model, these impairments or differences should be 'fixed' or changed by medical and other treatments, even when the impairment or difference does not cause pain or illness. The medical model looks at what is 'wrong' with the person, not what the person needs. It creates low expectations and leads to people losing independence, choice and control in their own lives. 1.2 Describe the social model of disability The social model of disability says that disability is caused by the way society is organised, rather than by a person’s impairment or difference. It looks at ways of removing barriers that restrict life choices for disabled people.
558 1.1 Explore Models of Disability. Medical Model of Disability: This came about in the 1960’s, with the belief that any problems lie with the person who has the disability. It also states that the person with the disability needs to accommodate society and change to fit in. People were not treated as individuals and had no self-worth as they were not seen as normal. There was a need to try and cure people with disabilities.
• Producing information in accessible formats • Ending segregated services. • Allowing disabled people to do things for themselves The social model has been developed by disabled people. In their view disability is caused by the barriers that exist within society and the way society is organised, which discriminates against people with impairments and excludes them from involvement and participation, rather than by a person’s impairment or difference. The social model of disability looks at ways of removing barriers that restrict life choices for disabled people. When barriers are removed, disabled people can be independent and equal in society, with choice and control over their own lives.
Disability is defined in different ways. There are a number of models of disability, but the main models of disability are: The Medical model, whereby the disability is considered as the condition, or the affliction, or the illness. The Social model, whereby the disability is considered to be the society which presents the problems and prevents the individual participating fully in social life. And the Psychosocial model, that refers to mental ill health, as well as maladjusted, cognitive and behavioural problems which may prevent the individual functioning in social situations. Up until the early 1970’s people who had an impairment, or an illness were considered as disabled.
Social constructionism is the term that describes the way social reality and social phenomena are constructed (Hacking, 1999). The purpose of this essay is to explore how individuals who suffer from schizophrenia are labelled ‘abnormal’, as opposed to ‘normal’. The author will look at a theoretical model of social constructionism, which draws on personal experience with schizophrenia patients, and finally, consider how this can be applied to occupational therapy (OT) practice. This essay begins by discussing what is meant by ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’, as the distinction between ‘normality’ and ‘abnormality’ is not clear (Frued 1999; Seligman, Rosehan, 1997). We could argue that our concept of normality is derived from the media and that all children are labelled at birth with society as the perpetuating force behind a list of ‘isms’ (racism, sexism etc.)
People with a disability are seen and said to be a personal problem to the family. This model is where dehumanization comes into play the most. The medical model is where the worse points of disabilities is bought out and shown as the important points of a situation. It also talks about how the disability can be fixed surgically or medically to help the person fit into the society better. With the medical model society doesn’t show any concern in trying to change things to help the person with disabilities.
The SIT does not place importance on what outsiders think of an individual and their placement within a group, rather the theory is wholly dependant on the individuals self assessment and ideas of themselves and where they belong. Social Identity Theory categorises social groups as dichotomous, either 'In' groups or 'Out' groups whereby the 'In' group have a more positive image and the 'out' group have a lower social status. Tajfel found that people have a basic need to satisfy their social identity which results in social groups pushing towards having the best image and the highest status by lowering the status of others. This contributes to the understanding of where a physically disabled person would be placed socially, groups maximise differences and try to highlight their own superiority through their positive attributes which, in the case of able bodied or disabled, is the full use of their bodies. An individual will base a social group on their body, this is what one will see or feel every day and can be measured against others or
The humanist approach doesn’t describe deviance as a behavior, rather defining it by the reaction and it being a subjective experience. The positivists focus on the high consensus deviance, the deviance that the majority agrees upon, such as hurting yourself or someone else. They want to explain the behavior and believe that it’s caused by the social environment. One theory used to explain behavior by the positivists is control theory. Control theory helps explain “crime, deviance, and especially delinquency” (56) In 1969, Travis Hirschi developed control theory.
It therefore views disability as a condition or impairment that requires treatment (C. McClain et al 1997 & M. Thornton & S. Downs 2010). Hence its focus on diagnosis and treatment of varying degrees of hearing loss (P. Ladd 2005 & C. McClain et al 1997) and the neglect of the social and economic needs. Furthermore the medical model focuses on dependence which results in disempowerment as it sees the person as a patient and passive participant in the process. Thus not giving them any say and bypassing their rights to