Foundations in Social Science Word Count: 2459 Select a group of individuals who may experience social exclusion. Describe the effects of social exclusion that may affect their health and outline some of the inclusive strategies that are in place to help provide health care to these individuals. As a society and as healthcare professionals it is important to understand how we regard those around us who are often marginalised or excluded. This essay will consider the issues of social exclusion and its effects on people with learning disabilities. The discussion will begin by considering what social exclusion is.
DISABILITY AND ELDERLY National Studies: Disability, like age, also has biological and social aspects. Early models defined disability as a deviation from normal functioning, and were premised on statistical models (e.g. Boorse’s bio statistical model. See Nordenfelt, 1995; Davis, 2006). Today, the term disability has evolved into a complicated multidimensional concept experienced and characterised from a variety of different perspectives: people with disability living in a range of social contexts, their significant others such as partners and family members, and members of formal institutions and professions such as doctors and social workers.
There are two models that link with equality, diversity and inclusion, social model of disability and medical model of disability/ Social model of disability which views discrimination and injustice as being embedded in today’s society, their attitudes and their surrounding environment. The social model focuses on who the adult is as person not what their disability or diagnosis is, the focus is on how to improve and empower the individual’s life and lead a more independent life as possible. Medical model of disability which views adults has having impairment or lacking in some way, this model focuses on impairments that the adult has and finding and acknowledging ways to correct them. The service users at my current place of work are adults with mild learning disability and some of the service users have a dual diagnosis. Both the social and medical model has an impact on their daily life.
SS OP 2.1 Introductory awareness of models of disability 1. Know the difference between the medical and social models of disability. 1.1 Describe the medical model of disability The social model of disability says that disability is caused by the way society is organised. The medical model of disability says people are disabled by their impairments or differences. Under the medical model, these impairments or differences should be 'fixed' or changed by medical and other treatments, even when the impairment or difference does not cause pain or illness.
MEDICAL MODEL / SOCIAL MODEL DEFINITIONS Impairment is the loss or limitation of physical, mental or sensory function on a long term, or permanent basis. Disablement is the loss or limitation of opportunities to take part in the normal life of the community on an equal level with others due to physical and social barriers. Disabled People's International 1981) Disabled People include people with: physical impairments; sensory impairments deaf people, blind people); chronic illness or health issues including HIV and AIDS; all degrees of learning difficulties and emotional and behavioral problems. It also includes people with hidden impairments such as epilepsy, diabetes, sickle cell anemia; specific learning difficulties such as dyslexia, speech and language impairments, children labeled as 'delicate'; people who identify as 'disfigured'; people of diminutive stature and people with mental distress. All are excluded by barriers though not all have impairments.
Unit 245 – Understand the context of supporting individuals with learning disabilities. 2.1A condition giving rise to difficulties in acquiring knowledge and skills to the normal level expected of those of the same age. 2.2Genetics, brain injury or damage, Down’s syndrome, complications at birth, Cerebral Palsy or meningitis. 2.3Medical – This is defined by the individuals disability, the medical diagnosis and promotes the view that the individual is dependant on society and excludes the individual from ‘fitting in’. Social – Developed by disabled people.
1.3 Critically analyse the difference between the social model and medical model of disability and how each model affects the provision. Medical model of disability is defines as the disability to be a medical problem. They concentrate on the disability rather than the child and young person’s individual needs. Each of the disabled children and young people are labelled according to their impairment or differences. The children and the young people will have medical treatment to eradicate the problem or they are excluded from the ‘normal’ society and will have a solitary life at their home or specialised institution where they cannot have a quality of life but just their basic needs are met.
The severity of certain disabilities can vary as well. Disability is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. An impairment is a problem in body function or structure; an activity limitation is a difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action; while a participation restriction is a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations. Thus disability is a complex phenomenon, reflecting an interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives.  However, the Disability Act of 2005 defines a disability as: ‘A substantial restriction in the capacity of the person to carry on a profession, business or occupation in the state or to participate in the social or cultural life in the state by reason of an enduring physical, sensory, mental health or intellectual impairment.’ For me, this definition basically means that persons with a disability have restricted opportunities and participation in society.
In the first part of the essay I will define social model of disability and explain how this model can change disabled people’s views relating to their own disability. Then drawing upon disabled people writing as well as the case study of David I will look at the barriers that disabled people face on a daily basis and look at some of the criticism of the social model. Finally, I am going to discuss social model’s relevance to the practice of therapists. Disability can be viewed from two perspectives: the medical model and the social model. The medical model understands disability as a personal tragedy; it sees impairment as a cause of limitations.
When discrimination occurs it can have a very adverse effect on the people who are subjected to it. There are many different types of discriminatory practice in a health and social care setting, they can be obvious (overt), subtle or sometimes unintentional. This task will explain three types of discriminatory practice and the effects that each practice has on those who are subjected to them. The first type of discriminatory practice that I have chosen is prejudice. Prejudice is usually found when staff members judge those who are in their care inappropriately because of case notes of the person or from information other members of staff have provided them with.