The ends of the bone are covered with smooth articular cartilage; this acts as a sponge and also reduces friction when the joint is moving. A hinge joint produces a similar action to a hinge on a door in that, it makes an open a close movement. The joint allows flexion and extension and a small degree of side to side movement when the knee is flexed. It is enclosed in an articular capsule to unite the articulating bones and ligaments to strengthen it by limited movement. The articular capsule has two layers: -Fibrous capsule: the outer layer - Synovial membrane: the inner layer that secretes synovial fluid which lubricates to reduce friction.
Flat bones provide protection for the internal organs including the brain, heart, lungs, liver and kidneys. The flat bone is made up of two layers of compact bone with a layer of spongy bone in the middle. 3) The epiphyseal plate is located in the metaphysis of the long bones which is found between the epiphysis and diaphysis. The epiphyseal plate is made up of hyaline cartilage. The cartilage makes it possible for the diaphysis to grow in length, thus the epiphyseal plate is also known as the growth plate.
This type of joint is one of six synovial joints called the ball and socket joint. A synovial joint is a freely moveable joint with distinctive features. They all have a smooth cartilage covering the ends of the bones and a double layered capsule which encloses the joint cavity. The outer layer is tough and is used for protection against excessive movement in lots of directions, while the inner layer is used to release synovial fluid to help lubricate the joint during motion. This part of the capsule is known as the synovial membrane.
What is a Ligament and how does it work? Ligament is a tough band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone or bone to cartilage and supports and strengthens joints. The main functions of ligaments are to keep the bones of the skeleton in a suitable alignment and prevent abnormal movements of the joints. What is a Tendon and how does it work? A tendon is tissue that connects muscles to bones.
This plate is a layer of hyaline cartilage that allows the diaphysis of the bone to grow in length but not in width. • Articular cartilage is a thin layer of hyaline cartlage covering the epiphysis where the bone forms a joint with another bone. This
Yosur Skeletal system is all of the bones in the body and the tissues such as tendons, ligaments and cartilage that connect them. Your teeth are also considered part of your skeletal system but they are not counted as bones. Your teeth are made of enamel and dentin. Enamel is the strongest substance in your body. Fused bones include those of the pelvis and the cranium.
Lever; almost always the bone Fulcrum; the pivot point of the lever in which is usually the joint. Muscle force; the force that drives the opposite ends of the muscles together. Resistive force; the force generated by a factor to the external body Torque; the degree in which a force tends to rotate an object. http://www.answers.com/topic/first-class-lever http://www.answers.com/topic/first-class-lever There are three different types of levers in the body; First-class, Second-class and Third-class. First-class; when the muscle force and resistive force is on different sides of the fulcrum e.g.
4. Two joints in the knee a. tibiofemoral joint, which joins the tibia to the femur b. the patellofemoral joint which joins the kneecap to the femur c. two joints work together to form a modified hinge joint that not allows the knee to bend and straighten, but also to rotate slightly and from side to side. B. Structure of the Knee 1. bones, ligaments, tendons, cartilages and a joint capsule, all of which are made of collagen. C. Bones of the Knee 1. give strength, stability and flexibility in the knee 2.
THE SKELETAL SYSTEM – BONES AND JOINTS The skeleton consists of axial and appendicular components. The axial skeleton consists of the skull, vertebral column and bones of the thorax, while the appendicular skeleton consists of the pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, and bones of the upper and lower limbs. You do not have to remember the names of all the bones of the body but you should familiarise yourself with those indicated on the diagrams below. There are different categories of bones: long bones, short bones, flat bones, sesamoid bones and irregular bones. Long bones – The major bones of the arms (humerus, radius, and ulna) and the legs (the femur, tibia, and fibula) are all long bones.
The axial skeleton contains the skull, spine, ribs, and the sternum and includes another 80 bones. The appendicular skeleton includes the limb girdles and their attached limb bones. This part of the skeletal system contains 126 bones, 64 in the shoulder and upper limbs. The limbs are some of the easiest bones to break as they are away from the bodies protection and seeing as we land on them awkwardly and break them. Their are many major bones in the body,im going to list the 15 that i believe are the most important ones with a muscle that attaches to it.