Glenohumeral Joint Essay

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Glenohumeral joint In this essay we will cover the functions and structure of the glenohumeral joint and synovial joint while also looking at what components are used to stabilize the glenohumeral joint. The glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint) is probably the most complex joint in the entire human body. Its shallow joint supplies the humerus with a full range of movement in all axes and planes. This joint offers many joint movements such as; flexion, extension and hyperextension, adduction and abduction, horizontal flexion and horizontal extension, circumduction and rotation. This type of joint is one of six synovial joints called the ball and socket joint. A synovial joint is a freely moveable joint with distinctive features. They all have a smooth cartilage covering the ends of the bones and a double layered capsule which encloses the joint cavity. The outer layer is tough and is used for protection against excessive movement in lots of directions, while the inner layer is used to release synovial fluid to help lubricate the joint during motion. This part of the capsule is known as the synovial membrane. Synovial fluid may also reduce inflammation by destroying cellular debris by releasing special white blood cells. The glenohumeral joint is composed of three bones; the clavicle, the scapula and the humerus. These three bones make up the shoulder girdle. The head of the humerus is called the glenoid fossa and the cavity of the scapula is called the glenoid cavity, these two fit together to form the glenohumeral joint. The glenoid fossa is large when compared to the small surface area of the glenoid cavity, making the joint shallow and not supplying a snug fit. Although this allows a wide range of movement, it also makes it susceptible to injury such as dislocation. To make the joint structure more stable, it is held together by three components; ligaments,

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