Bone Biology Essay

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Beth – Bone Biology Terms for Paleopathology HEMATOPOIESIS- the normal formation and development of blood cells in the bone marrow. In severe anemia and other hematologic disorders, cells may be produced in organs outside the marrow (extramedullary hematopoiesis). See also erythropoiesis. DIAPHYSIS- 1. the shaft of a long bone, between the epiphyses. 2. the portion of a long bone formed from a primary center of ossification. EPIPHYSIS- 1. The end of a long bone that is originally separated from the main bone by a layer of cartilage but that later becomes united to the main bone through ossification. HYALINE CARTILAGE- a type of connective tissue composed of specialized cells in a translucent, pearly blue matrix. Hyaline cartilage thinly covers the articulating ends of bones, connects the ribs to the sternum, and supports the nose, the trachea, and part of the larynx. It is covered by a membranous perichondrium, except where it coats the ends of bones, and tends to calcify in advanced age PERIOSTEUM- a thick, fibrous vascular membrane covering the bones, except at their extremities. It consists of an outer layer of collagenous tissue containing a few fat cells and an inner layer of fine elastic fibers. Periosteum is permeated with the nerves and blood vessels that innervate and nourish underlying bone. The membrane is thick and markedly vascular over young bones but thinner and less vascular in later life. Bones that lose periosteum through injury or disease usually scale or die. COMPACT BONE- lamellar bone the normal type of adult bone, organized in layers (lamellae), which may be parallel (cancellous b.) or concentrically arranged (compact b.). MARROW CAVITY- ENDOSTEUM- n a thin layer of connective tissue that lines the walls of the bone marrow cavities and haversian canals of compact bone and covers the trabeculae of cancellous bone. It has

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