Skeletal System Q&a

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1) Most of your bone mass is made up of hydroxyapatite, which is a compound of calcium and phosphorus, and accounts for about 65%. This is 99% of your body’s calcium and about 85% of your body’s phosphorus. Although these are the most abundant there are many other minerals in the bones such as magnesium, fluoride and potassium to name a few. This is why the skeletal system is also known as the “mineral reserve”. Whenever a mineral is needed hormone signals are sent to the bones and the mineral that is needed is released into the blood stream. Vitamin D is needed for bones to properly absorb and store these minerals. 2) Flat bones provide extensive surfaces for muscles to attach. Muscles attach to flat bones to help provide movement of the arms and legs. Flat bones provide protection for the internal organs including the brain, heart, lungs, liver and kidneys. The flat bone is made up of two layers of compact bone with a layer of spongy bone in the middle. 3) The epiphyseal plate is located in the metaphysis of the long bones which is found between the epiphysis and diaphysis. The epiphyseal plate is made up of hyaline cartilage. The cartilage makes it possible for the diaphysis to grow in length, thus the epiphyseal plate is also known as the growth plate. Once growing stops the plate calcifies and is now called the epiphyseal line in adults. 4) Spongy bone tissue is very vascular and contains red bone marrow. Trabecular bone is another name for spongy bone tissue. The functional and anatomical unit of the spongy bone is the trabecula. Trabecula gives the structured look of the sponge, thus leaving space between for red bone marrow and providing greater surface area. The red bone marrow in the spongy bone is where hematopoiesis, or the production of new blood cells, takes place. 5) The femur would be formed by endochondral ossification.

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