Slavery in America was abolished in 1865 after the Southern States had surrendered to the Northern States in the Civil War. Racial segregation, however, did not end with the conclusion of slavery. African Americans endured years of racial inequality because of Jim Crow Laws that were passed, legally separating blacks from whites in areas and activities (Jim Crow Law ). White people, as a result of these laws, continued treating African Americans as inferior people. An example of this is evident when Phoenix Jackson meets the white hunter in the forest.
According to Bowles, 2012, slavery began the civil war which led to further violence which in turn led to segregation. But just because this was the end of slavery, does not mean that the military leaders nor politicians can change the ingrained cultural beliefs of a people. The country was split between the North and the South; Northern white and in the Southern Blacks. African-Americans such as Malcolm X, Rosa Parks, and even more recent Barrack Obama have made significant steps to improve and even stop segregation. According to Bowles, 2011, American History 1865 to present End of Isolation, The Black Codes codified some of these feelings into law when in 1865 southern state governments created legislation that restricted and controlled the lives of the ex-slaves.
During the reconstruction era through to the Progressive era much had changed for the African Americans. After the assassination of President Lincoln (April 14, 1865) President Andrew Johnson continued the “ten percent plan”. The African Americans wanted land, voting rights and wanted to be educated which had been denied to them for centuries, they were considered to be economically and racially inferior compared to the whites. During the years of 1867 to 1870 the African Americans were able to increase their amount of social power. However with this increase of power came a group of southerners led by an ex-confederate forming the Ku Klux Klan in 1867.
After the abolishment of slavery, Black intolerance was high and many Black Leaders used caution when addressing the masses of former Black slave owners and predominantly white leaders in America. Booker T. Washington’s’ “Atlanta Compromise” seemed to pave the way for recently freed Blacks in America. His address was a kind
However, racial discrimination continued after the war. The Southern legislatures, former confederates, passed laws known as the black codes, which severely limited the rights of blacks and segregated them from whites. They were separated in schools, theaters, taverns, and other public places. Congress quickly responded to these laws in 1866 and seized the initiative in remaking the south. Republicans wanted to ensure that while remaking the south, freed blacks were made viable members of society.
After president Abraham Lincoln died and the failure of President Johnson, Congress tried to take responsibility of the plans to reconstruct the divided nation that they had before. The main point of reconstructing was to start and protect the citizenship rights of the freedmen. The Southerners were not happy about loosing their slaves and having rights equal to the slaves they used to own as property because of the freedmen’s. They did not want to receive the fact that the freedmen were now men, not just property and that their property was now their equal. The Southerners got up and were angry about the freedmen Congress that had to find a way to protect their rights.
If blacks could vote, and could thus prevent the reassertion of big Southern landowner power, which had always been the real force behind Southern racist politics, this would help to protect the tariff from the Southern landowners and their political forces. Sources for this section: Ha-Joon Chang. Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism. New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2008. Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor, Review of W. E. B.
In 1865, the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery, but that was just the beginning of what would become a long journey that African Americans would have to face trying to gain the same rights as a white man (Separate). While some white Americans welcomed them as fully free and equal citizens, others remained ignorant and refused to accept African Americans as equals in society (Separate). Soon “Jim Crow” laws became common throughout many of the Southern states, and their intentions were to
The Color of Crime Catherine M. Piraino English 122, English Composition II Instructor Mary Louise Phillips January 21, 2013 The Color of Crime The history of Black Americans has certainly been a challenging one. Brought to America in chains, slavery was their only option. It would not be until The Civil War that Blacks would attain the freedom they deserved. Although President Lincoln freed the slaves, oppression and predjuice against Blacks was widespread. It would be nearly 100 years before many of the injustices faced by the Black population surfaced into the public’s awareness.