The psychodynamic approach to abnormality assumes that adult behaviour reflects complex dynamic interactions between the conscious and unconscious processes, many of which have their origin in development from birth onwards. There are many approaches, all of which have their origins in the work of Sigmund Freud. Freud dedicated his life to the investigation of the human mind, particularly repressed material during hypnosis and the interaction between conscious and unconscious. Elements of the psychodynamic approach include, The structure of personality and psychosexual development. The structure of personality, this is something Freud said was made up of three interacting elements.
This part of the mind clearly dominates the human during infancy, demonstrated by the incessant crying of a child when it craves anything from attention to food. The next, more realistic part of the mind forms at about two or three years of a person’s life, and is called the ego. The ego operates on the reality principle, constraining the id’s desires and understanding how those urges can conflict with social and physical reality (Buss, Larsen, 2003). This part of the mind seems to be most like a moderator in any situation – controlling both sides with a peaceful and balanced agreement. The other “side”, and third part of the mind, therefore, is called the superego.
"Explain the concept of Freud’s argument of the Id, Ego and Super-ego and also the meaning behind the Oedipus Complex" (12) Freud’s theory on how the mind works is triggered by the 3 separate aspects of our brain, which are called the Id, the Ego and the Super-ego. The Id represents a part of our brain, which focuses on instant pleasure through ‘needs and wants’. However, although the Id demands, it often doesn’t get what it wants, meaning it becomes frustrated with the reality of what does happen. The result of reality is called the Ego, which keeps the Id at a distance from controlling what the body actually does. Most of the time, the Ego controls what the body does and finds itself satisfied with the limitations of reality, unlike the demanding Id.
The second stage is the “anal stage” this is the stage when the child derives great pleasure from defecating (Friedman & Schustack 2012). This is the stage of potty training. The third stage is the “phallic stage” in which sexual energy is focused on the genitals (Friedman & Schustack 2012). This is the stage where children start to notice their genitals and explore by touching them. The fourth stage is the “latency period” this is time “between the ages of 5 and 11 in which sexual urges
Oral stage is the first stage. Mouth activities such as sucking, biting, and licking will probably we have noticed that infants seem to put everything in their mouth. Freud also believed that there could be two reasons for fixation. First if the infant weaned too early then it would feel forever under-gratified and unsatisfied and would develop into a negative, sarcastic person. Secondly, when infants weaned too late then it would over-gratified the develop individual’s innocent personality, simply trusting in others and with a tendency to swallow everything.
In 1905, Sigmund Freud proposed that psychological development in childhood takes place in a series of fixed stages. These stages are called psychosexual stages because each stage represents the fixation of libido (sexual drives or instincts) on different areas of the body. As a person grows physically certain areas of their body become more important as sources of potential frustration, pleasure or both. Freud believed that life was built around tension and pleasure. Freud also believed that all tension was due to the built up of sexual energy and that all pleasure came from its discharge.
Psychodynamic Theories Psychodynamic theories are those propounded by Sigmund Freud, which further describe the conflict among instincts, reasons, and conscience. Although many different psychodynamic theories exist, they all emphasize unconscious motives and desires, as well as the importance of childhood experiences in shaping personality. Psychodynamic theory is a view that explains personality in terms of conscious and unconscious forces, such as unconscious desires and beliefs. Psychoanalytic Theory The psychoanalytic theory focuses on the role of experiences, the unconscious, and emotions that shape one’s personality. It is based on three main assumptions: 1.
In late pre-school years a child then develops what is called asuperego, or simply put, a conscience. At this stage values are internalized, andthe intricate connection between the id, ego, and superego ensues. The superegocomes into account when the id and ego desire to be expressed. In order for thechild to successfully continue developing, Freud believed that at each stage oflife, tension need be expelled. This was possible through pleasure of differentorgans of the body including the mouth, anus, and genitalia.
Strength and mobility develop and children take a small step towards independence. Children of this age group possess a cognitive immaturity, a selfish behavior and a refined sense of play, creativity and imagination. It is also during this phase that Freud’s phallic stage will occur. Equally described to be between the ages of three and six, the phallic stage is the third of Freud’s psychosexual phases, following the anal stage. Throughout the phallic stage, girls and boys become fully conscious of their sexual organs, which are now the erogenous zones, contrary to the anal phase, when the anus was the area of sensibility and sexual excitement.
Smoking, drinking too much alcohol and excessive eating have been linked to oral fixation in adults. Anal Stage · The anal phase is marked by the beginning of toilet training when the child is aged between 18 months and 3 years old. She must learn to control his bowel movements, along with other aggressive desires. At this stage, the child derives pleasure from eliminating and retaining feces and begins to realize the power this gives her over her parents. Freud believed that anal fixation results from parents being too strict with children during toilet training.