His work on sexuality and perversions led to the wider theory of sexuality whereby he differentiated the sexual aim (the desire for pleasure) and the object (the person or thing used to fulfil the desire). He asserted that sexuality is more than just genital copulation between adults and this work is the background to his theory on infantile sexuality. He emphasised particular erogenous zones as being of primary importance at different stages of infancy. Each stage impacts in three significant ways: physical focus where the child’s energy may be concentrated and their gratification obtained; psychologically through demands being made of the child by the outside world as he or she develops – either doing too much or not enough of what is ideal;
Psychodynamic theory includes all theories in the field of psychology that focuses on “functioning based upon the interaction of drives and forces within the person, particularly unconscious between the different structures of the personality” (McLeod, 2007). The assumptions to psychodynamic approach is; unconscious motive, childhood experiences, and causes of behaviors. In the psychodynamic assumption of unconscious motives the belief is that behavior and thinking
The psychodynamic perspective is based on the work of Sigmund Freud. He created both a theory to explain personality and mental disorders and the form of therapy known as psychoanalysis. The psychodynamic approach assumes that all behaviour and mental processes reflect constant and unconscious struggles within person. These usually involve conflicts between our need to satisfy basic biological instincts, for example, for food, sex or aggression, and the restrictions imposed by society. Not all those who take a Psychodynamic approach accept all of Freud's original ideas, but most would view normal or problematic behavior as the result of a failure to resolve conflicts adequately.
Sigmund Freud differed from B.F. Skinner in terms of approaching human behavior. Sigmund Freud was a psychodynamic psychologist. His idea about human behavior and development shows that behavior throughout life is motivated by inner, unconscious forces, stemming from childhood, over which people have little control. He focused on the realm of the unconscious mind and the defense mechanism of repression. He created the clinical practice of psychoanalysis for curing the mind ailment-psychopathology.
· Which of the major developmental theories are stage theories? Which are not? The stage theories are psychoanalytic theories of Freud and Erikson, and Piaget’s cognitive theory. Developmental theories that are not stage theories are the behaviorism of Pavlov and Skinner and the social learning theory of Bandura, and systems theories · Which theories emphasize individual conscious organization of experience? Unconscious urges?
Passer et al. (2009). The main focus of the psychodynamic theory is the effect of the unconscious mind on behaviour and emotions, however in order for the theory to be fully understood, it is essential to be aware of the assumptions that this perspective makes. One of the key ideas, fundamental to the psychodynamic perspective is the assumption that behavioural patterns executed as adults have direct links to previous childhood experiences. This assumption can help to explain how traumatic childhood events can lead to further psychological issues as adults.
Every child must pass through the so-called psycho-sexual stages; how a child experiences these stages plays a crucial role in the development of his/her personality. A child who becomes fixated at the oral stage may have an oral receptive personality and be very trusting and dependent on others, or he may develop an oral aggressive personality and become aggressive and dominating as an adult. The phallic personality type may be over-confident, vain and impulsive while the genital personality type become well-adjusted, mature, able to love and be loved. Therefore, the psychodynamic approach suggests that mental illness occurs as a result of psychological problems, not physical problems as suggested by the biological approach. A strength of the psychodynamic approach is that it reminds us that experiences in childhood can affect us throughout our lives without us being aware that it is happening.
Anthony S Brzenski 64021 BCJ 501 Criminological Theory Unit # 2 Question # 1 Freud had been criticized for the central role played in his theory by psychosexual development. Examine the role of psychosexual development as described by Freud. Next, indicate whether you believe that the critics are correct and evaluate the basis of your decision. Sigmund Freud was a Viennese Physician who opined that parents had a crucial role in managing their children’s sexual development that we develop through five stages of psychosexual development with pleasure focused on one specific region of the body during each stage. Freud believed the personality consisted of three interworking parts the id, ego, and superego.
Psychodynamic counselling places a great emphasis in exploring the types of feelings and dilemmas that have caused difficulties in a person’s everyday life. Freud had several assumptions explaining the main features of the psychodynamic approach. He assumed that emotional problems have originated from childhood experiences and people are usually not conscious or aware of the true nature of such experiences. He also assumed that the use of counselling the unconscious matter may become known through a transference reaction or even dreams and fantasy (as cited in McLeod, 2008, pg. 91).
Outline and evaluate the psychodynamic approach to abnormality The psychodynamic approach states that abnormality is a result of childhood conflict. It states that unresolved childhood conflict can become repressed and can appear as abnormal behaviour. According to Freud, the personality consists of the ID, the superego and the ego. An over-developed super-ego can result in anxiety. The psychodynamic approach also includes psychosexual stages which occur at different times during a child’s development.