Protein Synthesis Essay

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Protein Synthesis Essay The purpose of protein synthesis is to make protein but in order to get to that point at the end of protein synthesis, you first need to start. Protein synthesis first starts in the nucleus of a cell with messenger RNA or mRNA. mRNA carries the instructions for making proteins to DNA and other parts of the cell. Ribosomal RNA or rRNA is where the proteins get assembled, on these small organelles made up of two subunits. The last type of RNA is transfer RNA or tRNA. tRNA transfers each amino acid to the ribosome as it is specified by the codon messages in mRNA. These three types of RNA really help protein synthesis occur but the real beginning process is transcription. Transcription is the process where parts of DNA serve as templates to make complementary RNA molecules. Transcription requires an enzyme known as RNA polymerase. RNA polymerase binds to DNA during transcription and separates the DNA strand. Then uses one strand of DNA as a template to assemble nucleotides into a complementary strand of RNA. RNA doesn’t just bind anywhere on the DNA, it binds to a special region called a promoter. Promoters are regions that have special base sequences and they’re signals in the DNA molecule that show the RNA polymerase where to being making RNA. This process, transcription, allows a single gene to make hundreds or even thousands of RNA molecules. The next process in protein synthesis is translation. Translation is the decoding, breaking of the mRNA message into a protein. Transcription is not part of the translation process but it needs to happen in order for translation to occur. Translation begins when a ribosome attaches to an mRNA molecule in the cytoplasm. As the codon (3 base pairs) goes through the ribosome, tRNA brings the right amino acid into the ribosome when it begins to form growing chain. Each tRNA molecule has three

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