The death cap mushroom toxicity can cause inhibition of RNA Polymerase II, the enzyme necessary for synthesis of mRNA. The body must be able to produce mRNA or else there will not be a template to make new protein. “Without mRNA essential protein synthesis and hence cell metabolism grind to a halt and the cell dies.” (Amanita phalloides, “ n.d.) DNA Polymerase are enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of new complimentary strands, occurring at each fork and move from 5’ to 3’. When DNA Polymerase moves along the strands, new DNA is placed. Primase (RNA Polymerase)
Remember: *DNA must be fully condensed in order to divide. * M Phase is made up of mitosis and cytokinesis. The mitosis part has five phases: 1) prophase 2) prometaphase 3) metaphase 4) anaphase 5) telophase Following telophase is cytokinesis: division of the cytoplasm, organelles and macromolecules. Prophase -DNA is completely condensed. We can see it…this means there are condensin proteins.
F. The plasma membrane controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell. G. The role of the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum is to detoxify the organ or cell. H. Chromatin (DNA) is formed when hereditary material and protein combine. They then condense and from chromosomes for cell division. I.
Describe each process (including differences between bacteria and eukaryotes) and explain the significance of the differences between replication and transcription When first going through DNA replication, the two strands of double helix unwind. Each strand is an outline for the formation of a new, complementary strand. DNA helicase enzymes hang along the DNA molecule, opening the double helix as they move. Once the strands are separated, helix-destabilizing proteins bind to single DNA strands, preventing re-formation of the double helix until the strands are copied. Enzymes called topoisomerases produce breaks in the DNA molecules and then reconnect the strands, relieving strain and effectively preventing tangling and knotting during replication.
After duplication the cell is ready to begin mitosis. More, cells undergo prophase, Prophase is the first phase of mitosis. The DNA and proteins start to condense. The two centrioles move toward the opposite end of the cell as the chromosomes become visible. The nuclear envelope and nucleolus also start to break up.
B lymphocytes perform the role of antigen presenting cells (APC’s) and eventually develop into memory B cells after activation by antigen interaction. T helper cells activate the b cells to form a large clone of plasma cells, b effector cells that produce antibodies. In humans, immature b cells are formed in bone marrow before birth. After reaching the immature stage in the bone marrow they migrate to the spleen, where they are called transitional b cells. Some of these cells terminally differentiate into mature b lymphocytes.
Each genome contains the information needed to maintain and create the organism. The process of genetic engineering involves extracting of a small piece of cellular DNA, called a plasmid, from the bacteria if organism involved in the manipulation. A very small section of the circular plasmid is then cut out by the restriction enzymes which act as molecular scissors. The gene from the organism being modified is then inserted into this space and the plasmid is therefore modified. The genetically modified plasmid is now inserted and introduces into a new organism which starts divides rapidly.
When a B cell reacts, it binds, engulfs and processes that antigen. Specificity, Diversity and Immunological memory are all parts of the Clonal Selection theory. Embryos contain many different lymphocytes, which are genetically programmed to recognize a particular antigen and make antibodies to destroy it. If the lymphocyte encounters and recognizes it after development is complete, it divides repeatedly to produce a clone. If during development it encounters its programmed antigen as part of a normal host substance, the lymphocyte is somehow destroyed.
The nucleus constitutes most of the genetic material of the cell - the DNA. It controls the heredity characteristics of an organism.It is responsible for protein synthesis, cell division, growth and differentiation. Cytoplasm: the cytoplasm is the fluid substance that fills the space between the cell membrane and the cellular organelles.The enzymes in the cytoplasm metabolize the macromolecules into small parts, so that it can be easily available for the other cellular organelles like mitochondria. It also transports the products of cellular respiration. Mitochondria: the mitochondria are rod shaped structures.
4 – Dismantles debris B. 6 – Protein synthesis C. 2 – Houses DNA D. 1 – Lipid synthesis E. 7 – Processes secretions F. 3 – Energy extraction G. 5 – Detoxification 2) Explain the functions of the following proteins: A. Tubulin and Actin – Tubulin forms microtubules, while actin forms microfilaments. B. Caspases – Caspases are responsible for apoptosis. C. Cyclins and kinases – The interaction of cyclins and kinases trigger mitosis from the inside. D. Checkpoint proteins – Checkpoint proteins are responsible for regulating the cell cycle.