Physics Lab Report Ib Measurement

8036 WordsJun 26, 201233 Pages
LU 1 Chemistry and Chemical Nomenclature LU 1: CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE 1.1 Keys to the study of chemistry Chemistry deals with the properties and transformation of matter and the energy associated with those changes. 1.1.1 Matter, elements and compounds Matter is anything that occupies space (volume) and has mass: such as air, water, planets, and students. Matter occurs commonly in three physical states: solid, liquid or gas. It exists either as pure matter or impure matter. The pure matter can be an element or a compound, and impure matter is a mixture (Figure 1.1). An element is a pure substance which cannot be broken down into simpler substance chemically. It consists of only one type of atom and the particles can be either atoms or molecules. Examples: Atoms: Na, K, Mg, etc Molecules: O2, H2, Cl2, etc A compound is usually made up of 2 or more elements which are chemically bonded together so that the elements that make up the compound lose their identities and do take on a new set of properties. A compound can be made up of either molecules (molecular compound) or ions (ionic compound). Examples: Molecular compound: H2O, CO2, NH3, etc Ionic compound: NaOH, NH4OH, NaCl, MgSO4 etc Impure Matter - Mixture Mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds that are mixed without combining chemically. Each part of the matter in a mixture has its own identity (properties). Each matter can be separated using physical or mechanical means. Example: vinegar, soil, rocks, milk. Mixtures can be heterogeneous mixtures or homogeneous mixtures: Heterogeneous mixtures- the substances are not spread out evenly. Example: a bottle of liquid salad dressing. Homogeneous mixtures- the substances are spread evenly throughout; a homogeneous mixture is called a solution. Example: vinegar (water and acetic acid are mixed evenly throughout). Other examples: soft drinks,

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