There are several different forms of muscular dystrophy, each of which weakens different muscle groups in various ways. The first type is Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, the most common type of the disease, is caused by a problem with the gene that makes the protein, dystropin. The second type is Becker Muscular Dystrophy, which is similar to Duchenne’s, but it’s symptoms like muscle breakdown and weakness occur at age 10 or even as an adult. The third type is Emery-Driefuss Muscular Dystrophy which affects mostly boys, involves joint problems in muscles, upper arms, and shins. There are also many other types, but these are the most common.
A person’s own immune system attacks the myelin sheath that surrounds the axon of the nerves. Once the myelin sheath is damaged, the nerves cannot transmit signals properly. Nerve damage leads to muscle weakness, loss of reflexes, and numbing or tingling of the hands and feet. This is caused by the muscles loss of ability to respond to the brains commands. GBS is not often fatal but in rare cases people have died from GBS.
It impacts the patients physically, emotionally, socially, and professional life. Tourette's syndrome is more common than we think. Involuntary movement from TS typically begins between the ages of 3-8 affecting the face and head. This disorder can range from simply blinking more than normal to verbalizing or performing sexually inappropriate behavior. Severity of motor (involuntary movement) and phonic (involulntary noise) abnormalities usually peak early with a reduction of symptoms noticed around age 20 for most people, but severe cases may start in adulthood (Leckman, 2002).
The main effects of brain injury can be grouped into three areas:- Physical Cognitive Emotional and Behavioural Physical Effects · fatigue - excessive tiredness, tasks such as getting dressed or walking around can require much more effort after brain injury. · mobility - movement can become very slow and balance can be affected. Some people may need a wheelchair or other mobility aids. · sensory impairment - sensation of touch on the skin may be reduced, lost or exaggerated, eyesight may be affected, taste or smell may be impaired or lost, either in the short or long term. · difficulties with speed - slow, indistinct or rapid speed is common.
later the person may become confused and may find it difficult to understand what is being said. Vascular dementia This describes all forms of dementia caused by damage to the blood vessels to the brain Symptoms can occur suddenly after a stroke or over time through a series of small strokes known as multi infarct dementia. Lewy bodies This form of dementia gets its name from the tiny spherical structures made of proteins that develop inside nerve cells . their presence inside the brain leads to the degeneration and death of brain tissue affecting memory , concentration and language skills . People with lewy bodies often suffer hallucinations.
It is important to encourage to maintain independence. Know the most common types of dementia and their causes. 3.1) The most common causes of dementia are neurodegenerative disease where the brain cells die more quickly than normal which leads to a decline in the persons mental and physical abilities. Dementia can be caused by strokes, brain damage, old age, or it can be hereditary. 3.2) Symptoms of Alzheimer’s; Becoming more confused and forgetful, Mood swings, Becoming withdrawn due to loss of confidence, Having difficulty completing every
There currently is no cure for Parkinson’s disease; it is always chronic and progressive, meaning the symptoms always exist and always worsen over time. As the disease progresses these complications are often associated: * Depression * Fatigue * Constipation * Sleep disturbances * Cognitive impairment * Dementia * Sexual dysfunction Parkinson’s disease itself is not a fatal disease. The rate of progression varies from person to person, as does the intensity of the symptoms. Usually death is caused by secondary complications, such as pneumonia, or fall related injuries. I have a great resource for information pertaining to this disease.
Incidence of most dementia increases with age. Accordingly the number of dementia patients is increasing rapidly in developed countries, and the impact of this disease on society is tremendous. Approximately 10% of all persons over the age of 70 have significant memory loss, and in more than half the cause is Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AD most often presents with subtle onset of memory loss followed by a slowly progressive dementia that follows a course of several years. Pathologically, there is diffuse atrophy of the cerebral cortex with secondary enlargement of the ventricular system.
It is a physical condition affecting the brain. It can be caused by various things such as age, down syndrome and genetics. It is caused when abnormal clumps called either plaques or tangles interfere with how the brain cells work and communicate which cause them to die. People with Alzheimer’s also have a shortage of chemicals that help with the transmission of the brain. The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease may change as the disease progresses.
Dementia syndrome or ‘mixed dementia’are terms for a condition in which abnormalities characteristic of more than one type of dementia occur simultaneously in the brain. In the most common form of mixed dementia, the abnormal protein deposits associated with Alzheimer’s disease coexist with blood vessel problems linked to vascular dementia. Mixed dementia symptoms may vary,