Parkinson’s disease; the brain changes caused by Parkinson’s disease begin in a region that plays a key role in movement. As the brain changes, the disease will begin to affect mental functions, including memory and the ability to pay attention, make sound judgements and plan steps needed to complete a task. Parkinson’s disease is a fairly common neurological disorder in older adults, estimated to affect nearly 2% of those over 65. Huntington’s disease; this disease is a progressive brain disorder caused by a single defective gene on chromosome 4. Symptoms of the disease include abnormal involuntary movements, a severe decline in thinking and reasoning skills, irritability, depression and mood changes.
This can be caused by a stroke or hardening or thickening of the artery walls which impedes the flow of blood. The vascular system can also be damaged by heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes. The brain cells eventually die and this leads to the onset of vascular dementia. If these conditions are treated early enough the onset of dementia may be delayed or even halted. There are different types of vascular dementia and they are dependent on which part of the brain has been damaged and how the damage was caused, as different parts of the brain control different functions of the mind and body.
UNIT 4222-365 1.1 Range of causes of dementia Cells in the brain stop working, and the part of the brain that this occurs in will affect how that person thinks, remembers and communicates. The most common forms of dementia are Alzheimer’s disease and Vascular dementia. Alzheimer’s disease is caused by damage in certain areas of the brain. With time, it spreads and affects cells in other parts of the brain. The cause of the brain cells dying and the deterioration of the connectors is not fully known.
Alzheimer’s disease Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia and accounts for between 50 and 70 per cent of all cases. It is a progressive degenerative illness that attacks the brain. As brain cells shrink or disappear, abnormal material builds up as ‘tangles’ in the centre of the cells and ‘plaques’ form outside the cells. These disrupt messages within the brain, damaging connections between brain cells. The cells eventually die and this means that information cannot be recalled or assimilated.
B – DEM 301 - Understand the process and experience of dementia As part of my role I am responsible for the procurement and contracting of services for Older People. The types of services that are procured can be varied and wide ranging. Understand the neurology of dementia 1.1 There are a wide range of causes of Dementia. Dementia may be brought on by one particular cause or sometimes a combination of conditions. Dementia is basically damage in the brain where there is a build-up of abnormal proteins which causes a decline in mental ability.
DEM-301 Understand the Process and Experience of Dementia 1.1 Describe a range of causes of dementia syndrome. Fixed cognitive impairments are due to a single incident.traumatic brain injurys may cause generalised damage to the white matter of the brain or localised damages. A brief reduction in the supply of blood and oxygen to the brain may lead to this type of dementia. A stroke or brain infection can also be the cause of dementia. Excessive alcoholic intake results in alcoholic dementia.
Alzheimer’s disease- Alzheimer’s disease is caused by the build-up of proteins in the brain which form into “plagues and tangles”, these in turn will cause a loss of connection between nerve cells and cause cell death and loss of brain tissue. Early symptoms of Alzheimer’s can be lapses in memory, problems with language (forgetting words or their meanings) and poor visuospatial skill’s (gaging distance, ability to see in 3D). People can also suffer from depression or anxiety, they could become withdrawn and lose interest in daily activities or hobbies or have poor initiation. As the disease progresses sufferers can develop more pronounced memory problems and lose a sense of time and place, they may forget where they are or have difficulties recognising their own family. Vascular dementia- Vascular dementia is caused by the flow of blood and oxygen to the brain being interrupted causing the death of brains cells, this is called an infarct.
Unit 4222-237 Dementia Awareness Outcome 1 Understand what dementia is: 1.1 What is meant by the term ‘dementia’: The term 'dementia' is used to describe the symptoms that occur when the brain is affected by specific diseases and conditions. These include Alzheimer's disease and sometimes as a result of a stroke. 1.2 The key functions of the brain that are affected by dementia : Dementia is a condition of the brain which causes a gradual loss of mental ability, including problems with memory, understanding, judgement, thinking and language. In addition, other problems commonly develop such as changes in personality and changes in the way someone interacts with others in social situations. As dementia progresses, the ability of someone to look after themselves from day to day may also become affected.
1. Explain what is meant by the term ‘dementia’ Dementia is the term used to describe a group of symptoms that occur when the brain is affected by certain diseases and conditions. Symptoms are progressive and degenerative and as more brain cell get damaged or die, a gradual loss of memory and decline in other intellectual functions which affects a person’s ability to remember, make rational judgments or communicate and is serious enough to interfere with performing the tasks of daily life. There are many different types of dementia, both inherited and non-inherited forms, with Alzheimer’s disease and Vascular dementia the most commonly diagnosed type. Dementia can occur to anyone at any age from damage to the cardiovascular system or a family history of Alzheimer’s disease, although it is most commonly associated with aging.
The term dementia is used to describe a group of symptoms, a person with dementia is a person with a range of disabilities which can be more difficult to recognise than physical disabilities dementia is more of a generic term and includes a vast range of conditioms and there causes this is because dementia is more tham just memory loss it is also effects the cognitive function so things like remembering, comprehension, awareness, judgement etc this is due to damage or disease in the body more than what is expected from normal ageing. The key functions of the brain that are affected by dementia include the cerebrum, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) affects the cerebrum. In DLB small, round lumps of proteins build up in the grey matter. These spheres harm nerve cells,