He showed students videos of violent crimes and interviewed them 48 hours later either using a standard police interview or the cognitive interview. The found that people were significantly more likely to remember details correctly when interviewed using the cognitive interview, showing that cognitive interview is effective in improving recall. However this study was a laboratory experiment which means it lacks ecological validity as people may have not taken it as seriously as they would in reality so the results can’t be generalised. Also, there are ethical issues in this study as it showed people violence so they weren’t protected from possible psychological harm. More research into the effectiveness of cognitive interview has supported this study showing that cognitive interview is superior to standard interview.
However, the younger children would lack schemas and the vocabulary needed to describe the science experiment. This means that they wouldn’t have been able to describe the experiment when asked to recall it, and therefore would make this experiment less valid. Anastasi and Rhodes performed an experiment in 2006 to see if recall is better when identifying people from the same age range (own age bias). They showed 24 photos to 3 age groups and then later they were shown 48 photos and had to identify the original 24. They found that generally the younger age groups were better at recall, but all age groups were better at recognising their own age group.
A strength of legitimate authority being an explanation for obedience is that there is supporting evidence from Milgram’s study. When he carried out his experiment in a run-down office block with the experimenter wearing a suit rather than a lab coat, obedience levels dropped to only 48% of participants giving the 450v shock, compared to the original 65% when in the prestigious Yale University setting. This is a strength as it suggests that participants no longer believed in legitimate authority of the experimenter and so were less prepared to obey his orders. A limitation of using Milner’s results is that his research may be culturally or historically biased. Some critics say that the results show more about the historical and cultural climate of the USA at the time -when McCarthyism was at large and people feared being accused of being communist spies- than fundamental psychological principles.
Contradictory to this, a point to back up Rep 1’s accuracy is that a book (2) agrees with Rep 1 as it says how ‘If there was a fight let them get on with it’ and Rep 1 also explains how ‘in some areas they allowed fights.’ Rep 2 is definitely the least accurate out of all the Reps as there are many more points that challenge its accuracy. A very obviously exaggerated impression created by Rep 2 is that the streets were ‘quite unsafe… robbed and mobbed in broad noon day’ but a book (4) explains how ‘an MP was mugged on his way home… at night.’ However this Rep can be reinforced by a book (5)
He found out during the 12 most important trials, 36.8% of the answers given by the ‘real’ participants were incorrect, effectively conforming to the wrong answers given by the common associates. Only 25% never gave a false answer, therefore showing that 75% conformed at least once. To make sure that the motivation lines were clear, Asch conducted a controlled experiment that had no partners giving false answers. The results showed that people do make mistakes 1% of the time. He concluded that the total results showed a shockingly strong trend to conform under group pressure, even in cases where the answer is clear.
2. Parker and Carranza: P: Compared primary school children and college students in their ability to identify a target individual after a slide sequence of a mock crime F: Child witnesses had a higher rate of choosing that adults but they were more likely to make errors C: Concludes that children aren’t more accurate witnesses than adults The following research has looked and the elderly and the accuracy of eye witness testimony: 3. Cohen and Faulkner: * They showed 70 year olds and 35 year olds a film of a kidnapping * Then presented them with misleading details before asking them to recall what happened in the film. F: They found that the 70 years olds were more likely to be mislead than the 35 years old. C: Therefore, this research would suggest that people of an old age do not have accurate eye witness testimony.
A detailed pilot study was carried out to ensure that participants felt that the games differed in aggression and violence only, this removes any extraneous variables so we can establish cause and affect, it also ensures that one game is sufficiently more aggressive than another. Anderson and Dill’s experiment is regarded as being very reliable, this is because a large sample of students were used giving consistent results and a clearer view on aggression in video games. However it could be argued that it lacks population validity due to the fact that only undergraduate students were used, so it doesn’t show how different age groups would respond to the aggression. This means that we cannot generalise these results to the wider population. Participants were told that the study was about learning and developing skills, this deception means that the participants won’t focus specifically on the aggression in the video games.
Perception of security may be poorly mapped to measureable objective security. For example, the fear of earthquakes has been reported to be more common than the fear of slipping on the bathroom floor although the latter kills many more people than the former.  Similarly, the perceived effectiveness of security measures is sometimes different from the actual security provided by those measures. The presence of security protections may even be taken for security itself. For example, two computer security programs could be interfering with each other and even cancelling each other's effect, while the owner believes s/he is getting double the protection.
In a report released by a Democratic and Republican pollster, “only 18 percent of Americans surveyed believed that Watergate was worse than other scandals of the last quarter-century” (Polman). It is also noted that America moves very quickly as a society, and people tend to forget the seriousness of past events. Recently, as well, young people have learned to associate American culture with scandal, so Watergate no longer shocks
They overheard a heated and hostile exchange between people in the laboratory. After the sound of breaking glass and crashing chairs, a man emerged from the laboratory holding a paper knife covered in blood.Participants were then given 50 photos and asked to identify the person who had come out of the laboratory. | Findings | 1. Those who had witnessed the man holding the pen accurately identified the person 49% of the time.2. Those who had witnessed the man with the bloody paper knife we successful only 33% of the time.