Morphology as a branch of linguistics aims at describing the structures of words and the patterns of word formation (Klammer, 2007). Thus hence before looking at the differences and the similarities of the two elements, it is vital to look at a word and a morpheme in greater detail A morpheme is a smallest unit of a word. This unit should be a meaningful one. According to Donald (1999), a morpheme is a grammatical unit in which there is an arbitrary union of a sound and a meaning that cannot be analyzed further. A morpheme being the smallest unit, a morpheme cannot be cut into smaller parts and still retain meaning.
Self Teaching Unit: Subject - Verb Agreement Although you are probably already familiar with basic subject-verb agreement, this chapter begins with a quick review of basic agreement rules. Subjects and verbs must AGREE with one another in number (singular or plural). Thus, if a subject is singular, its verb must also be singular; if a subject is plural, its verb must also be plural. In the present tense, nouns and verbs form plurals in opposite ways: nouns ADD an s to the singular form; verbs REMOVE the s from the singular form. These agreement rules do not apply to verbs used in the simple past tense without any helping verbs.
ADVERBS AND ADVERBIALS Adverbs and adverbials may be one or several words that offer information on circumstances connected to the state or activity named by the verb. Adverbs are one-word items that modify verbs. Adverbials may be single words or else phrases that provide information about when, where, how, or why things happen. So adverbs fall into the category of adverbials. The difficulties around them have to do with where we should place adverbs.
Nominal Morphology Seminar 1 MORPHEMES AND SYLLABLES The traditional term for the most elemental unit of grammatical form is morpheme. A single word may be composed of one or more morphemes. (V. Fromkin, R. Rodman, An Introduction to Language, 1974) Morphemes could be shown in writing, for instance by using hyphens: The tradition-al term for the most element-al unit of gramma-tic-al form is morph-eme. A single word may be compos-ed of one or more morph-eme-s. but it is not conventional to do so. The smallest grammatical unit which has meaning and which is marked in writing is the word.
Related to the competence-performance distinction are the terms “grammaticality” and “acceptability”. In theory a sentence is grammatical if it is generated by a grammar. In the case of grammaticality it is to be shown that native speaker judgements whether a sentence is grammatical or not are related to the speaker’s competence. Furthermore acceptability is related to performance and does not necessarily reflect competence in order to judge correctly about whether a sentence is grammatical or not. The purpose of this essay is to display how the competence-performance distinction relates to the notions of grammaticality and acceptability.
Figures of Speech A figure of speech is the use of a word or a phrase, which diverges from its literal interpretation. It can also be a special repetition, arrangement or omission of words with literal meaning, or a phrase with a specialized meaning not based on the literal meaning of the words in it, as in idiom, metaphor, simile, hyperbole, personification, or synecdoche. Figures of speech often provide emphasis, freshness of expression, or clarity. However, clarity may also suffer from their use, as any figure of speech introduces an ambiguity between literal and figurative interpretation. A figure of speech is sometimes called a rhetorical figure or a locution.
If two or more allophones cannot replace one another, these allophones are said to be contextual variants or in complementary distribution. Complementary distribution is a systematic relationship between two or more allophones, whereby one allophone can only occur in a phonetic environment I which none of the others can: they are mutually exclusive. If allophones in complementary distribution did replace one another for some reason, the resultant pronunciation would merely sound odd, or the articulation would feel awkward, but this would not cause a change of meaning. Devoicing. If an intrinsically voiced or
One way to analyze sentence structure is to think in terms of form and function. Form refers to a word class—such as noun, verb, adjective, adverb, and preposition—as well as types of phrases, such as prepositional phrase, nominal clause, and adverbial clause. Function refers to the function of the form in a sentence. For example, the function of a prepositional phrase in a sentence may be adverbial; that is, it modifies a verb. Types of adverbials that form sentence elements
It differs in grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary from the standard language, which is in itself a socially favored dialect. So a dialect is a variation of language sufficiently different to be considered a separate entity, but not different enough to be classed as separate language. There is no clear qualitative linguistic