Economies were created through trading and bartering, mostly through social circles and relationships. Taxes and custom duties were created so that trade could be controlled to protect their economy. Two dominant economic systems exist throughout the world. They are capitalism and socialism. “Capitalism is an economic and social system in which capital and the non-labor factors of production or the means of production are privately controlled; labor, goods and capital are traded in markets; profits are taken by owners or invested in technologies and industries; and wages are paid to labor” (wikibooks.org).
Workers had virtually no bargaining power with their employers and were extremely vulnerable to economic downturns, which left them unemployed at a moment’s notice. Similarly they were forced to accept the dangerous working conditions, long hours, and often low pay offered by large enterprises (Porter, 1973) Porter, Glenn. The Rise of Big Business, 1860-1910. New York: Crowell, 1973. Nations of Nations, pp 544, 545.
These cities were not prepared to support the social and life functions of these new citizens in terms of food supply, clothing needs, and providing housing. Sanitation systems were challenged due to overcrowding leading to deaths because of infections. Industry workers typically lived in poorly constructed tenements not far from their place of employment, and crowded entire families into small living quarters. Urbanization also caused a major change in the social class structure of these cities. The workers not only lived in deplorable conditions, but they worked long hours in hazardous environments.
In the first chapter, Galbraith wrote, “Economic growth is the further dynamic of capitalism.” The second minor theme that materializes in Galbraith’s work is the idea that programs benefiting the lower class, rather than the “comfortable” class, were beneficial to the United States. He brings this topic up multiple times throughout his book. Galbraith shows, through his depictions of
Societies differ from place to place, different cultures, different cities, different towns; even villages have different understandings of society. This is because the environment is society. Take England, for example. England is populated by capitalist societies but within them like socialist views. Big, successful cities are driven by capitalists towards a destination where only money and power matter – not much else.
For example, a person who is disabled and rarely able to leave the house or someone with no income left after essential purchases are of less value to retailers who will target the ‘seduced’ individuals with spending power first. As a result, ‘repressed’ consumers can feel disenfranchised and isolated in a society they cannot fully participate in,
Starvation and sickness also played a significant role at this point. Easter Island is a great example of a place where everything seemed keen and resources were immensely available. Without taking the proper steps to sustain their society, they drove themselves out of existence. This lesson can be used today, so that people remember what happened to Easter Island and don’t repeat their downfalls. In conclusion humans have affected the environment throughout time.
Culture created by man fails, when British schoolboys stranded on a Pacific island after their plane crash. set up a mock democratic government with Ralph as leader in order to keep a civilzed organization. They try to govern themselves with disastrous results as the saavage ways of human nature take over their actions.A signal fire is kindled with Piggy's glasses on the mountain to call passing ships to their rescue while shelters are constructed. Jack, soon becomes obsessed with hunting the pigs of the island and loses sight of Ralph's democratic vision. Further discord results with an increasing fear of a supposed "beast" on the island.
Mr. White gets two hundred pound and also his son dies. Mr. Whites’ decision to tamper with fate ultimately brings misery to the family. Mr. White’s choice to use the monkey’s paw causes him to wish for two hundred pounds currency, leading to misery. After making his first wish, Mr. and Mrs. White meet a stranger, who informs/tells them that their son “was caught in a machinery” (55) and died. Mr. White’s son is killed by a machine.