The products of this stage are passed down into the next stages. The 2 molecules of pyruvate are passed down to the oxidation of pyruvate, and NADH will be used for the electron transport chain. The rest of the products, 4 ATP, ADP, and P, are used where needed in the cell. After glycolysis occurs, oxidation of pyruvate takes places in the mitochondrial matrix. During this stage,
There are 3 main processes that comprise respiration: glycolysis; the Krebs cycle; and the respiratory chain. Glucose enters the cell by facilitated diffusion, and glycoloysis then takes place in the cytoplasm. Glucose is phosphorylated (using a phosphate molecule from the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)) to form glucose phosphate, a compound which can also be used for the synthesis of glycogen elsewhere in the cell. Glucose phosphate is phosphorylated again, and splits into two triose phosphate sugars. Each of these is converted in a number of steps to pyruvate (another 3-carbon sugar), a process that releases some energy, and a hydrogen atom, which is transferred for use in the respiratory chain by the co-enzyme NAD.
Investigation of the effect of Substrate concentration on Catalase activity Research Question: To investigate enzyme kinetics, using catalase enzyme from the yeast extract. Background Information: Enzymes are proteins which catalyze reactions that take place in the body or they increase the rate of the biological reactions. In an enzyme catalyzed reaction, the substrate binds to the active site and forms the enzyme-substrate complex with the enzyme. The enzyme breaks the bonds present in the substrate; the final product of this reaction leaves the enzyme which remains unchanged after the reaction. Catalase is a substance which is produced by the liver to break down hydrogen peroxide.
Various enzymes have unique shape and chemical composition that creates a site, called and active site. This is to allow connection between the enzyme and other molecules called substrates. The shape and chemical makeup of the active site provides an area for part of the substrate to connect with the enzyme. (Farabee, 2010) Part of the active site holds the substrate and part catalyzes the reaction. Some enzymes act on one substrate only, while other enzymes act on a family of related molecules.
Introduction This report discusses an experiment to asses the chemical breakdown of starch into maltose (sugar) in the presence of the enzyme amylase, a digestive process within the body. Nutrients can be absorbed only when broken down to their monomers (small molecules that breakdown further to other molecules). Enzymes are large protein molecules produced by body cells. “They are biological catalysts, meaning they increase the role of a chemical reaction without themselves becoming part of the product. Digestive enzymes are hydrolytic enzymes.
Here it’s broken down back into ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi). Chemical energy is released from the phosphate bond and used by the cell, ATPase catalyses this reaction. The ADP and inorganic phosphate are recycled and the process starts again. Key words Phosphorylation – adding phosphate to a molecule e.g ADP is phosphorylated to ATP Photophosphorylation – adding a phosphate molecule using light Photolysis – the splitting of a molecule using light energy Hydrolysis – the splitting of
Revised Fall 2011 Enzyme Activity Objectives After completing this exercise you should be able to: 1. Define catalyst, enzyme, active site, substrates, enzyme-substrate complex, products, synthesis, degradation, oxidation/reduction, isomerization, and enzyme specificity. 2. Explain how enzymes work. 3.
2nd step: The second step consist of the start point of glycogenesis and it’s a reversible reaction which transform the Glucose -6P to Glucose -1P. The enzymes responsible from this reaction is the Phosphoglucomutase. Glucose -6P Glucose -1P The phosphoglucomutase catalyze the reaction by moving a functional group, here it’s a phosphate group. 3rd step: The third step consist to transform the Glucose -1P to UDP-Glucose. The enzyme responsible is UDP-Glucose pyrophosphorylase and this reaction consumes UTP.
At the introduction to the duodenum, alpha amylase is secreted by the pancreas and further breaks down the carbohydrates into primary simple sugars. Then they are transported and absorbed by the small intestine via the villi on the epithelial lining of the lumen of the small intestine. The epithelium absorbs these simple saccharides (such as dextrin and maltose). These sugars, in their simplest forms (as glucose, fructose, or galactose), will enter the capillaries where they enter the blood stream via different transporters such as the GLUT transporter (a facilitative sugar transporter)(7). Fructose and galactose will enter the liver via the hepatic portal system where they are broken down to glucose.