This theory is focused on followers’ implicit beliefs and assumptions concerning the characteristics of the leader. There’s a reciprocal relationship between followers and leaders. However, the followers are still passive but their perceptions, preferences and attitudes can influence leadership processes. Followers who are proactive will often negatively influence leaders. Here we can see the role of the social nature of leadership in the effects of followers on leaders.
The great person theory of leadership assumes that leaders possess a special cluster of traits that sets them apart from followers (Judge, 87). Using the trait-orientated focus popular with psychologist, researchers have show that leaders tend to possess high cognitive ability, inner drive, and the desire to take on a leadership role, self-confidence, integrity, and sufficient flexibility to develop novel approaches to problem solving. An individual with these traits would be more likely to emerge as a leader amongst their peers. More recent scholars have argued that effective leadership emerges from situations or crises that invoke leadership skills rather
Leaders have strong traits to become effective. The theory of leadership, which is lead by traits, which have made them effective; This theory can be commonly referred to as the “great man” theory (Howell & Costley, 2006). The leadership effectiveness traits include physical, personality and social traits. Physical traits include energetic, education, and social status. Personality traits include assertiveness, dominance, creativity, self-confidence, administrative ability, and fluency of speech, social perceptiveness, and adaptability.
Coercive Power Coercive power is based on the fear of consequences when the person does not follow instructions of their leader. This type of fear can be a physical or mental pain discomfort based on the frustrations of the unknown. Conceive power can be displayed by threats of loosing job and privileges, being demoted and other types of consequential actions. Coercive power could also be used to conceal key information (Robbins & Judge, 2007). Employee 2 could possibly use conceive power based on how valuable he is his position to get more pay or even better schedule than the one he requested or other job advantages.
Transactional Leadership Style The idea of transactional leadership theory was created in 1978 by J.M. Burns and based on Waber’s (1974) theory of leadership along with Kohlberg’s stage of moral growth (Sciotto, 2014). Transactional leadership style describes more on a “give and take” relationship as referring to the exchange relationship between leader and follower, in order to fit their own self-interests as a consequence of meeting particular objectives (Bass, 1985, 1990; Burns, 1978; Lai, 2011). This style of leadership will motivate their followers by focusing on changing and promises rewards when their followers able to carry out the specified tasks (Abdullah et al., 2014; Pedraja-Rejas, Delgado-Almonte, Rodriguez-Ponce, & Rodriguez-Ponce,
A real life example of successful transformational leadership is included. Resistant behaviour transpires when change alters the relationship and understanding between employees and the organizations mutual obligations, that are specified and definite (Wanberg, 2000). According to Albert Ellis‘s rational-emotive therapy (1977) and Aaron Beck‘s cognitive theory (1970), we arrive at a conclusion through our way of thinking (Cameron and Green, 2004). The reactions that are given to specific cases are the result of our thought process (Burnes 2003). Self concepts and values are the main determinants of our beliefs, which influence our attitudes, feelings and behaviours.
* Describe and critically evaluate the key differences between process theories of motivation and content theories of motivation? * Critically evaluate the accuracy of the claim that: “since there is no one best way of leading, managers must adjust their leadership style in response to pressures deriving from the organizational situation in which they are working”. * What is leadership? With reference to relevant theories of leadership, critically evaluate the claim that there is ‘one best
ASSIGNMENT 1 1. Ideology The concept of ideology have many various perspectives. One of the perspective is by Ambercrombie, Hill and Turner (1980) who view ideology as a form of social order that is sustained by the acquiescence of the majority. However, people are able to resist and reject the ideology of the majority. A more neutral view of ideology is that it is synonymous to our worldview.
So how can we avoid this behavior if and when we recognize it as such? First we need to identify all the components Prejudice is usually a negative incorrect unjustified attitude or prejudgment directed towards someone based on personal views of a particular social group or groups. Someone that’s prejudice towards others may not act according to their beliefs, but still may not discriminate against them. One line of logic that is used is to justify ones prejudice and stereotypes is to justify the system used; by using social inequalities, they legitimizing beliefs, attitudes and myths. By placing emphasizing a lower-status groups weakness, according to their weaknesses and flaws, they justify those that are in a higher status maintaining the status quo and in doing so allowing the higher status individual to feel secure in their position.
The outcome or the formation of each person’s sense of self depends on how each person interprets the experiences, how the society responds, and the decision of who each person would like to become. Unfortunately, once a self is formed, it can possibly be lost or forgotten due to the idea about how the sense of self in each person loses that several theorists have come up with. Jung, Rogers, and Winnicott are the three of the most famous theorists who came up with the theories about losing the sense of self. The first theorist, Carl Jung came up with the idea that total personality, known and unknown includes several archetypes. The self includes the persona and shadow.