Introduction to Psychodynamic Theory

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Introduction to psychodynamic theory: Psychodynamic counselling takes as its’ roots the works of Freud, Bion, Winnicott, Bowlby, Clarkson and Melanie Klein, who developed her work with children and many others (McLeod 2007; Dryden 2007; Mitchell and Black 1995). According psychodynamic theory no client or person (including myself) becomes who they are without an historical background to their transference (Freud 1973, 1979; Klein 1997; McLeod 2007). In my working relationship clients often come to counselling with some family problems, or relation to family, i.e. mother, father or siblings (Klein 1997). Psychodynamic theory helps me to know how family members are alike, and how different family members are (Winnicott 2007); it gives me important clues and understanding of my clients (Klein 1998; Dryden 2007; McLeod 2007). Thus, appropriate questioning is important (Jacobs 2010); one may never know what the clients may discover for themselves (Klein 1997; Jacobs 2010: 16-53). It is of value to my clients to know the sources of the psychological forces and qualities they are using (Jacobs 2010). Therefore, I would explain to my client that there may be similarities between themselves and their parents and ancestors, and that these similarities or dissimilarities have a bearing on the family situation, and that they constitute parts of their own psychological make-up (Klein 1997). Overview Melanie Klein, whilst keeping thus to an instinct theory, developed the idea of a phantasied inner world of object relationships where ego and objects could be split into different parts (Klein 1997). Klein (1997) described the mechanism of projective identification in which it is possible in phantasy to split off parts of the self and put them by projection inside another. These projected-into objects become persecutory threatening to annihilate the ego that expelled
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