The development of these technologies changed transportation, manufacturing, and even communication. These technologies also contributed to creating huge factories, through standardization, and thus furthering urbanization. The assembly line was a massive factor in industrialization, although it was invented pre-civil war; it allowed the mass production of goods and increased worker efficiency. People were now able to afford things that only the wealthy would have been able to afford in the past. On the other hand, the assembly line did indeed deskill many workers, and further reorganized how the people made a living.
I believe the Constitution did a better job of protecting liberties, specifically in the areas of the federal court system, representation of the people, and the levy of taxes. Alexander Hamilton, statesman and economist, proclaimed "Laws are a dead letter without courts to expound and define their true meaning and operation”. The Articles of Confederation which gave rise to the Confederation government that took effect in March 1781, did not give the national government any means to enforce the federal laws. The states could, and often did, choose to interpret or enforce federal laws in any manner they saw fit. This led to disputes amongst the states that could not be readily settled, as it relied on each state’s court system which invariably chose to discount the ruling of the other states.
Items were being offered that had never been on the market before such as refrigerators, telephone sets, cookers, the Model T by Henry Ford, and an endless amount of domestic hardware and commodities. An increase in jobs and a flourishing economic boom allowed people to feel comfortable in buying products at a much higher rate. However, many people did not actually posses the money they thought themselves to enjoy. Margin buying and installment buying became widely used practices and in effect concentrated the focus of American life around consumerism and materialism. The creation of the magazine, such as Time by Henry Luce, encourage people continue in their direction of booming buying, and the people listened.
As the department store grew in North America from the mid to late 19th century, there was a multitude of changes occurring inside and outside its walls. There was a significant change in retail practices from an old, guild governed system that was not consumer friendly to a hassle free, pleasurable experience for all. It will be shown that this change was evident in the department stores style of business. There was also a change in consumption that was occurring at this time. The economies were expanding which meant people had more money to spend.
Apart from the social injustices, the progression and good far outweighed the bad. It was two steps forward and one step back while the economic effects were one huge leap forward and a just as big step back. There were more than a handful of inventions and discoveries that revolutionized American society, led to urban sprawl, made tasks exponentially easier, and were the centerpiece for recreation. Cars were mass produced and people decided to live outside the cities and take vacations more frequently. They produced many new jobs with the need for new roads since the American landscape was drastically expanding.
Impact of Industrialization in Western Europe During the period of time between 1750 and 1900, the impact of industrial change in Western Europe due to the Industrial Revolution underwent several transformations while holding onto its original purpose: to introduce entirely new technologies that improved everyday life and skyrocket the world economy. The First Industrial Revolution between 1750 and 1850 mainly experienced local challenges such as the new industrial cities being filled with pollution and dirtiness; however, the Second Industrial Revolution between 1850 and 1900 experienced problems on a much larger scale, while also eliminating those problems by significantly improving the living standards. Another change between the two revolutions was the increased productivity during the time period 1850 to 1900, due to new machinery that could replace the need for so many workers, which led to the formation of labor unions and business cycles. However, even though the Second Revolution occurred on a much larger scale, several continuities can be noted. One such continuity is the poor working conditions experienced by the industrial workers.
What accounted for the rise of urbanization in America during the nineteenth century? Urban population of America increased seven fold after Civil War, natural increase accounted for a small part of urban growth, high infant mortality, declining fertility rate, high death rate .In 1900 almost 14 percent were urbanites even though only 12 cities had 1 million or more inhabitants. An agricultural economy to an industrial economy in the end of the 19th century were the most successful nation.The years of industrial expansion after the Civil War brought important changes to American society. The country became increasingly urban, and cities grew not only in terms of population but also in size, with skyscrapers pushing cities upward and new transportation systems extending the outward. Part of the urban population growth was fueled by an unprecedented mass immigration to the United States that continued unabated into the first two decades of the twentieth century.
Later on, concerns about individual health and cleanliness to prevent disease encouraged the development of the Health care and welfare services. The following essay will show how the number of reforms that took place during this time not only transformed Public Health throughout the 19th Century, but also set down the framework for future reform and laid down the foundation of what Public Health is today. From 1801 to 1901, the number of people living in the cities increased 78%. (Halliday, 2007, p 19) The modernisation of agriculture and industry caused a growing prosperity and this attracted migrations of people to the industrialised cities and towns, which suffered an unexpected demographic growth. Britain was the first industrialised nation, the so-called ‘industrial shop of the world’ and had a reputation to keep.
From 1100 AD – 1300 AD, the merchant class began to develop more and wealth began to increase due to increase in trade. Business owners were not forced to stay in towns, they could pick up and move anywhere at anytime. Because of the increase of wealth by the merchants, they church’s power began to fade and by 1300 AD the merchants had control over the towns. There are many different things that caused the population to grow. One of the biggest roles that played a part in the growth was the expansion of agriculture.
They forced the lords to offer freer terms to the peasantry. Often, peasants earned freedom in return for an annual payment to the lord. Allowing large numbers of people to move from agricultural to industrial work in the towns brought economic acceleration. Indeed, a sort of handicraft industrial revolution took place during the 12th and 13th centuries, especially in the Low Countries where great cloth-making centers such as Ghent and Bruges accumulated much wealth and stimulated growth in Western Europe generally. The Hansa, a widespread league of North Sea, Norwegian and Baltic trading towns, emerged in this period, opening up Scandinavian resources to supply Western Europe with furs, timber, beeswax, and