It contains genes, passed on from our parents, which construct our distinct features, e.g. Eye Colour, Hair Colour, Skin Colour etc. DNA must replicate in order to pass on the Genomes, the way this replication occurs is one DNA strand must act like a template and then it is copied to create a new strand which is an exact copy of the template. Protein is created by the information stored inside each gene’s DNA. The information is transferred to a molecule called Ribonucleic Acid (RNA).
Transgenesis and Cloning Transgenesis is the process of inserting a gene from one source into a living organism that would not normally contain the inserted gene. The gene can come from the same species (called Cisgenesis) or from a different species entirely. To facilitate the transfer of genes from one organism to another, often a Transgenic Organism with Recombinant DNA is created: -The first step in creating an organism capable of carrying out the transformation process is to isolate the required gene. This is done so using Restriction Enzymes, which target a specific gene sequence. The gene is often cut with staggered ends, called “Sticky Ends” which only allow specific and complementary gene sequences bond by base pairing.
When cells need to divide, the cells have to replicate and copy its entire DNA so that each daughter cell gets one complete set of genetic information. The hydrogen pairs that are holding together the base pairs are broken by enzymes, like helicase, and the molecule is split in half creating two strands. This process is also called the “unzipping process”. These two strands have to follow the rules of base pairing. Each strand serves as a template for the attachment of complementary bases.
A ribosome can also be known as the chemical factory. Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) has the job of making copies of parts of the DNA as required by the body and taking it through the chemical factory. So in relation to the topic of this essay, a messenger mRNA comes along and takes a copy of a digestive enzyme from the DNA and squeezes through the pores with it into the cytoplasm . In this environment it heads towards the ribosomes and passes through the ribosome where protein synthesis and translation occurs. The protein then passes to the Golgi apparatus where it is processed and packaged or more simply modified and labelled for its digestive function then released in vesicles to go and perform its specific function.
Besides, chromatin contains Histones (chromosome proteins) and other proteins involved in the packaging of the DNA strands during condensation at cell division (see figure E here below) and small quantities of RNA. aantallen chromosomen, chromatiden, zusterchromatiden, homogole chromosomen, ploïdie number of chromosomes, chromatids, sister chromatids, homolog chromosomes, ploidy Sister chromatids (with -tid at the end), are two identical (= exactly the same) parts (Chromatids) arising from replication of a chromosome. (In the figure here next the sister chromatids A1 and A2 are an exact copy of each other, as well as the set B1 and B2, whereas homologs A's and B's show small differences). These two parts retain the denomination chromatids as long as they are bound together through the centromere, which is for example the case during the entire S phase following duplication of DNA (replication). This connection is vible as a constriction during mitosis or meiosis.
Describe the structure and function of each of the eukaryotic organelles. ”A eukaryotic cell is sectioned by internal membranes into different functioning categories called organelles. For example, the nucleus houses DNA, the genetic component that controls the cells activities. (Boundless. “Introduction” Boundless Biology).
Each genome contains the information needed to maintain and create the organism. The process of genetic engineering involves extracting of a small piece of cellular DNA, called a plasmid, from the bacteria if organism involved in the manipulation. A very small section of the circular plasmid is then cut out by the restriction enzymes which act as molecular scissors. The gene from the organism being modified is then inserted into this space and the plasmid is therefore modified. The genetically modified plasmid is now inserted and introduces into a new organism which starts divides rapidly.
The smaller plasmids make use of the host cell’s own DNA replicative enzymes in order to make copies of themselves, whereas some of the larger ones carry genes that code for special enzymes that are specific for plasmid replication. Size and copy number of plasmid is an important feature of plasmids for cloning purpose e.g. plasmid ranging from 6-10 Kb is very suitable for cloning and having copy number as many as 50. Plasmid may be of following type: • F-Plasmid: having ability to promote conjugal transfer of plasmid e.g. F-Plasmid of E.coli • R-Plasmid: responsible for providing resistance to host against foreign bodies such as anti bacterial resistance e.g.
Ribosomes are responsible for assembling chains of amino acids to make protein. The way in which the component parts are arranged within the cell, plus the additional organelle in in eukaryotes however, provides the biggest difference between the two cell types. All organelles of the eukaryotes are membrane bound. Compartmentalisation within the eukaryotic cell allows for each organelle to create its own isolated environment so that the reactions and processes of each organelle is kept separated within the cell. The genetic material of both cells, in the form of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is held differently within the two cells.