Proteins are formed through condensation reactions which bond amino acids together with peptide bonds in a particular sequence and the type of protein that is created is defined by the unique sequence of the amino acids. DNA and RNA are nucleic acids that are formed in the nucleotides and are both involved in the process of protein synthesis. Deoxyribonucleic acid, more commonly known as DNA, is located within the nucleus of the cell and contains the entire genetic code for an organism within its structure. DNA has two very important functions which are: to convey information from one generation of cells to the next by the process of DNA replication and to provide the information for the synthesis of proteins necessary for cellular function. Basically, DNA controls protein synthesis.
This is the restriction enzyme and acts as “molecular scissors” cuts the two DNA chains at a specific area in the genome so that sections of DNA can be supplemented or detached. A piece of RNA known as guide RNA is the second key molecule. This consists of pre-designed RNA quite small in length sequence, consisting of about 20 bases, positioned within a longer RNA scaffold. The scaffold binds to DNA and the pre-designed sequence ‘guides’ Cas9 to the right part of the genome. ensuring that the Cas9 enzyme intersects at the right point in the genome.
stores proteins and alot of exporting (sending stuff out of the cell) 3. In which part of the cell would you expect to find nucleotides? building block for DNA, DNA found in the nucleus 4. Name the two organelles involved in energy conversion.chloroplast and mitochondria 5. What are the basic functions of the organelles in chapter 4?
I. The nucleus envelope separates the nucleus from the rest of the cell; within the wall of the envelope is where nucleus pores are found. J. Ribosomes are attached to the surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and direct the assembly of proteins that are then modified within the network of membranes within the rough endoplasmic reticulum. K. The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum provides a large surface area for chemical reactions to take place within the cell. Describe the main types of human tissue, Describe the function of the main human tissue types (600 words) (P2/3) * Epithelial tissue protect the tissues that lie beneath it.
-After the gene is amplified a suitable vector is selected for use. A vector is a self-replicating DNA molecule used to transmit a gene from one organism to another. All vectors must contain the following characteristics: 1. Able to replicate host organism. 2.
Describe the structure and function of each of the eukaryotic organelles. ”A eukaryotic cell is sectioned by internal membranes into different functioning categories called organelles. For example, the nucleus houses DNA, the genetic component that controls the cells activities. (Boundless. “Introduction” Boundless Biology).
The nucleus constitutes most of the genetic material of the cell - the DNA. It controls the heredity characteristics of an organism.It is responsible for protein synthesis, cell division, growth and differentiation. Cytoplasm: the cytoplasm is the fluid substance that fills the space between the cell membrane and the cellular organelles.The enzymes in the cytoplasm metabolize the macromolecules into small parts, so that it can be easily available for the other cellular organelles like mitochondria. It also transports the products of cellular respiration. Mitochondria: the mitochondria are rod shaped structures.
During transcription, RNA polymerase makes a copy of a gene from the DNA to mRNA as needed. This process is similar in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. One notable difference, however, is that prokaryotic RNA polymerase associates with mRNA-processing enzymes during transcription so that processing can proceed quickly after the start of transcription. The short-lived, unprocessed or partially processed, product is termed pre-mRNA; once completely processed, it is termed mature mRNA.  Eukaryotic pre-mRNA processingMain article: Post-transcriptional modification Processing of mRNA differs greatly among eukaryotes, bacteria, and archea.