Protein Synthesis Essay

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Protein Synthesis To complete this worksheet, select: Module: Foundations Activity: Animations Title: Protein Synthesis Introduction 1. Describe the cellular importance of protein synthesis. Because it forms structural components and enzymes necessary for life. 2. a. Where does the protein synthesis process begin? In the nucleus b. What is chromatin? Complex proteins and some RNA c. Define a gene and explain its importance. The hereditary units that controls cellular structure and directs cellular activity. Transcription 3. a. Define transcription. The process where an mRNA copy of one side of DNA gene is made in the nucleus. b. Explain the function of RNA polymerase. It starts the formation of RNA by using a strand of DNA molecules as a template. 4. Describe the transcription process that results in synthesis of an RNA molecule. The use of one strand of a DNA molecule as a template. 5. a. Contrast the functions of the three types of RNA molecules. Messenger RNA (mRNA) – copies the coded message from DNA in the nucleus and carries the message to the ribosome. Transfer RNA (tRNA) – transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) – contains most of the RNA in the cell, responsible for ribosome function. b. Where does transcription take place? In the nucleus Translation 6. Where does translation take place? Ribosomes in the cytoplasm carry out translation. 7. Ribosomal location determines the usage of proteins made there. How are proteins used produced at each of the following ribosomal location? Free ribosomes in the cytosol - makes protein that functions within the cell Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) – makes protein that functions outside the cell 8. Describe tRNA function. Transfers amino acids to the ribosome to make protein. 9. a. Define a codon and its function in protein synthesis. RNA

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