History of Western Civilization

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HISTORY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION I HISTORY 101 Unit 2 Term Definitions Etruscans: These were people of unknown origins who came to have a great deal of influence in northern and central Italian the 8th century B.C. From roughly 650 to 500 B.C., Etruscan monarchs ruled Rome. During this era, Rome became a true city. In addition, the Etruscans introduced the Hoplite infantry system and the alphabet to Rome. Consuls: These were the two executive officials who governed Rome during the period of the republic. These two rulers held executive and judicial authority. They were elected by the comitia centuriata (an assembly of soldiers) and were approved by the Senate to serve one-year terms. These officials usually came from the ranks of the Senate and returned to it when their term as consul ended. Patricians: These were the wealthy aristocrats who monopolized political power in the early Roman republic. They were the descendants of the original members of the Senate at the time the Etruscans were overthrown in the late 6th century B.C. Plebeians: These were the middle and lower class commoners of Rome who struggled for more than 200 years to gain politically equality with patricians. They won this conflict because they were important to Rome militarily. Conflict of the Orders: This was the long struggle between the patricians and plebeians in the early Roman republic. In this struggle the plebeians slowly gained political rights as they gained access to the laws, gained the right to hold consulships and religious offices, and gained the right to intermarry with patricians. 12 Tables: This was the publication of the Roman Law Code in 450 B.C. It was placed on wooden tables and for the first time allowed Plebeians to know where they stood in relation to the law. Pyrrhic War: This was the war Rome fought and won against the Greeks of southern Italy. It lasted

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