This essay will be looking at what is meant by the term social model of health and I will be describing the differences when it is compared to the medical model of health. The social model of health is a view that health is multidimensional with social factors, such as class, gender and ethnicity, influencing and patterning health and illness. The medical model of health is a specific way of thinking about and explaining disease based on biological factors One of the recognized explanations of health is established by the World Health Organisation (WHO 1946). WHO defined health as state of complete physical, mental, spiritual and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. (WHO, 1946).
Two Models of Health Researchers have depended on scientific models and theories, such as the biomedical and biopsychosocial model (BPS), of human functioning in order to treat pathological mental and physical illnesses for decades. Advances in medicine, adequate patient treatment and health awareness are all significant contributions to society brought about by both clinicians and scholars who have utilized the biomedical and/or biopsychosocial model in their practice or scientific research. However, both the biomedical and biopsychosocial model each maintain their own unique stance on health and illness; one theory subscribing to the concept that all human disease can be explained in terms of a biological departure from normal cellular and organic functioning, while the other postulates that a combination of biological, psychological, and sociological factors all play an important part in the manifestation of disease and illness. Although both medical models are used by physicians and health psychologists alike, each receive training in their prospective fields, leaning more towards one model over the other, when it comes to explaining and treating illness. However, the question still remains whether or not all medical research into health and illness can be adequately investigated using ‘normal’ scientific empiricism.
Authors put forward this disengagement theory that older people would naturally tend to withdraw from social involvement with others as they get older; older people would have restricted opportunities to interact with others due to reduced health and social opportunities (Aldworth, Billingham and Connor, 2010). I shall now discuss the activity theory. It has been argued that older people needed to disengage, but that they also needed to remain ‘active’ in order to prevent disengagement going too far. Bromley said ‘It is not sufficient merely to provide facilities for elderly people. They need to be educated to make use of them and encouraged to abandon apathetic attitudes and fixed habits.’ Too much disengagement would lead to ‘stagnation’ and a loss of mental and physical skills.
An individual is responsible for their own health and decision which means they should be able to decide if they want any medical treatments for their illness to get better. People must ensure that they look after their own health such as personal hygiene and eat healthy diets when they are ill. The responsibilities of the sick role included: The sick person talking all the reasonable steps to get better and seeking to resume their normal place in society as soon as possible. Co – operating with medical professionals and choosing affective measures to improve their health condition. Every single individual in the society have their own roles and responsibility.
Reimbursement and Pay-for-performance Theresa Kilgo HCS/531 December 16, 2013 Dr. Rachael Kehoe Reimbursement and Pay-for-performance There are a lot of problems within the health care system that State, Federal, and Local governments are trying to correct the matter by moving away from the fee-for-services model and move to the pay-for-service model. One of the problems is cost and efficiency of health care, and one of the ways that they are trying to fix the problem is with pay-for-performance. That can be defined as an incentive that provide financial funds to health care providers to carry out improvements focused on achieving prime patient issues, this program is widespread and many states have adopted the program, and many have a report that they have seen an increase in quality of care. This program was created to improve the healthcare systems, however, many authors have different meanings and roles of pay-for-performance but all agree on the definition and function of the program, “the objective of pay-for-performance initiatives is to link reimbursement to quality and efficiency as an incentive to improve the quality of health care, as well as reduce system wide costs” (Shi & Singh, 2012, p. 237). There are a lot of pros and cons of pay-for-performance in health care (see appendix for charts.)
HEALTH DETERMINANT/GOVERNMENT ROLE Health determinants are a multitude of factors that determine whether someone is healthy or not. Determinants do not work in isolation; they are closely interrelated in a complex system. These factors can be classified into four categories. -Endogenous or biological: These factors are internal and arise within the body. -Lifestyle habits and behavior: These factors are ways of being and acting.
Unit 2 – Section B Transmission of Values In a health and social care environment there are many codes and conducts that carer providers should abide by, if they chose not to abide the rules and regulations it could resort in consequences both for the provider and service user. In this section of work I plan to outline what the transmissions of values are in communication and why they are important in health and social care settings. For each transmission value, I will identify the value and explain how it can be transmitted, I will then also give an example for each value to show how it can be admitted and applied to alternative client groups. In total there are ten different transmission care values to be applied in a health and social care setting and they are; awareness of needs, relationships, understanding a service user, respect for difference, maintaining personal dignity, providing choice, encouraging independence, confidentiality, praise and promoting identity, (Moonie, 2005, page 101). Transmission of values is a process where health and social care workers administer the different care values to ensure each client receives a high standard of care.
However, before going further, I will like to analyse the definition of health; as defined by other various institutions. The concept of health and its definition has remained very controversial, even to date because it is understood very differently by professionals and lay people. Blaxter, 2004:3, once said, “The meaning of health is neither simple nor unchanging”. The biomedical perspective on health earlier focused on the body’s ability to function, seeing health as a state of normal function that could be disrupted from time to time by disease. According to the World Health Organization, health is; “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not
This paper will examine the social health determinant income and social status from a primary healthcare’s perspective in relation to accessibility; public participation, health promotion, appropriate technology and intersectoral collaboration; it will also highlight strategies for change from an interdisciplinary perspective that could be implemented. “Accessibility implies healthcare that is available regardless of finances; geography and culture that is appropriate and acceptable to all” (Ross-Kerr & Wood, 2010, p.186). Although Canada has a universal healthcare coverage; and promotes equality for all, health care is not always accessible to all. From a financial perspective people of lower income and social class does not have access to specialized treatments that their wealthier counterparts do. Where specialized treatment is needed; for example, dental surgery, a person in the lower
Discuss one or more model of health When talking about health, there are many different models and definitions used to define it. Models of health are constructed when social scientists’ try to understand how an aspect of society/health works and seek to describe it in a simplified, but nevertheless accurate way. Some models emphasis the negative definition of health, i.e. the biomedical model. The negative definition says that if someone is not ill, have a disease, or is sick, then they are healthy (www.wisegeek.com).