In the Roman Empire, some believed that technology was necessary, but not necessarily enlightened, while others saw it as a way to show how great their civilization really was. Han government officials felt that technology was indeed an important part of a civilization and required government intervention. The Han government official in Document 1 said, “I request that establish water conservation offices in each district and staff then with people who are experienced in the ways of water. There should be one high official and one deputy with just enough workers to meet the need”. This shows that he felt it was important for the government to have some control, and to have people who knew what they were doing in charge.
Document 1 was written by a Han government official in the 2nd c. BCE, it urges the importance of waterways and engineering and how the government should regulate the transition of water to prevent floods. This request was made to organize the system and save the labor of the lower class men. This will increase the job opportunities and increase the protection of the city. This tells us that technology is essential and the government should support it. This government official feels responsible for the disunity of the water ways and because he is the one in charge.
Around the dawn of the first millennium, the Han and Roman attitudes toward technology were both self-glorifying, however the Han Empire in China placed more value upon technology and technological enhancements than did the Roman Empire, as evidenced by the constant concern on the part of the Han dynasty over the occasional indifference on the part of the Romans. Before beginning, it must be stated that every single document provided is written by somebody in the upper class, giving no insight into how the lower classes or peasants felt about technology. This provides a very limited viewpoint into the different attitudes, as the upper class was not the majority. Plus, there are no documents from women, leaving the reader to guess what women felt about the technology they used, how it helped them, or was all technology geared toward helping men in those patriarchal societies? A document from either of these sources would provide great insight into the attitudes toward technology in each nation.
In the Han and Roman empires, the two cultures felt extremely different about their attitudes towards technology, but even within the cultures themselves, these attitudes were not necessarily the same. Hans believed that while technology was primarily for the lower class people, upper class people should invent these, and sometimes use them. However, the Roman empire seems to be thoroughly divided on their attitudes towards technology. Some of the documents seem to think that technology is not for the upperclass, and is in fact vulgar, but others seem to think that it is beautiful and useful, created by the lower class but used by both. The first four documents are from the Han dynasty, and two of them are from government officials, which would probably mean a weak bias on their part towards the government.
* Aimed to improve conditions for the working class as Stalin believed the revolution was a working class one, and had seen how the peasants prospered but the working class did not under the NEP. NEP was a very slow industrialising plan, a new approach was needed as oil, coal, steel, iron and copper production was at a low level compared to other European countries. * Believed to be possible due to the fake ‘successes’ of collectivisation. * Stalin aimed to build a reputation that would surpass Lenin and show that he was against right-wing policies like the NEP of Bukharin. * Series of targets drawn up by the State Planning Committee, very extensive but the officials who set the targets had only a sketchy knowledge of the factory they were dealing with.
Han and Roman Technology The Hans and Romans were both great societies in the ancient times. Innovative as well as super powers in old civilization, both societies created new technology that was ahead of their time. The Hans created agricultural implements that were well made and functional, while the Romans created aqueducts that carried water to different sorts of places. However, the Romans gave some effort towards new technology, but the Hans were generally more serious and hardworking than the Romans toward newer and more innovative technology. The Hans were very enthusiastic about the idea of new and useful technological advances.
Foreign Reactions to Western Imperialism China and Japan India and Japan’s reactions to Western imperialism was the same as in they first resisted outside control, but eventually gave in to Westernization; however, India resisted through physical methods while Japan resisted through cultural methods. Europe wanted to expand their empire to include colonies in India and to also have an influence on Japan. The building of the Suez Canal was funded and lead by Britain. The canal allowed for easier trade for the Dutch East India Company that was based in India. This new passage allowed for Western Influence to spread to the Eastern world.
The Confucianism was not the pure studies of Confucius, but a mixture of various other philosophies and superstitions to enhance the complex and inadequate teachings of Confucius. This changed the way that the empire was run. Before, emperors appointed people to positions regardless of their competence. Now, the emperors chose the people they thought were the best suited for the job based on merit. Written examinations were used to identify the best qualified people for the job.
The painting was commissioned by a leader of the workhouse who will have told the artist to show the workhouse in a better light. I know that this may have happened as conditions were not strictly regulated at the time and those who ran the workhouses did not want to waste expense as the more they saved, the more they could keep in the bank. This meant that appalling conditions were often let slip, as no one investigated and commissioned paintings like this could have been bought off to give the appearance of things being better than they actually were. However, this painting as a source itself suggests that Old Poor Law was effective in helping the able-bodied poor. Source M is an extract from William Cobbett’s ‘Rural Rides’, published in 1830.
In Anceint Rome, many upper class Romans had a negitive opinion of the technology but the other Romans, mainly the lower class, had a positive opinion of the technology of their time period. Rome, as a city, would most likely not be as great of a city if there had not been as great of city had there not been great technological advances. Although many lower class hat Romans believed technology had opened up chances for a better life and they took tremndous pride in their work, even though the upper class Romans that the technology was not anything special. The upper class thought that technology was not important, unless the tools were made by someone who mattered in society. Many lower class Romans believed that technology was