Freud also believed that fixation to a developmental stage happens if that child gets either tool little of too much pleasure throughout the duration of one particular stage. People who experienced some discrepancy in the pleasure equilibrium during the oral stage would for example smoke, bite or suck their nails or have a need to chew gum. The second developmental stage at around the age of 2 years is called anal, the reason because at this stage toddlers are learning to control their bowel movements. It is at that stage that children start to learn that
By 8 months of age, object of permanence begin to emerge because infants begin to develop memory for objects that are not perceived (Myers, 2013). 1c. Piaget further explains that after object permanence emerged, children at 8 months start to develop stranger anxiety where they would often cry in front of strangers and reach for someone who is familiar to them (Myers, 2013). Both object permanence and stranger anxiety emerge around the same time because children are able to remember and build schemas. While Piaget’s cognitive theory consists of four stages (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational) that children go through as they grow, McCrink and Wynn proposed a different theory of cognitive development.
In this essay Freud sets out his theory of psychosexual development. He asserts that there is in all humans an innate drive or instinct for pleasure, a sort of psychic energy, which he calls the libido and this energy needs to be discharged. He then goes on to describe how this drive finds outlet at the earliest stages of life, as babies, toddlers and infants and describes the oral, anal and phallic stages and the psychological effects of fixation at these stages. It is important to note that Freud separated sexual aims and objectives. His work on sexuality and perversions led to the wider theory of sexuality whereby he differentiated the sexual aim (the desire for pleasure) and the object (the person or thing used to fulfil the desire).
In late pre-school years a child then develops what is called asuperego, or simply put, a conscience. At this stage values are internalized, andthe intricate connection between the id, ego, and superego ensues. The superegocomes into account when the id and ego desire to be expressed. In order for thechild to successfully continue developing, Freud believed that at each stage oflife, tension need be expelled. This was possible through pleasure of differentorgans of the body including the mouth, anus, and genitalia.
The essay will discuss how children brought up in addicted households are affected and the effects on their adult lives. It also touches on how they handle their own families when they grow into adulthood. Although addiction can present itself in many different ways such as gambling, food or sexual, for the purpose of this essay the author will describe how a family is affected by substance abuse. Main Body Families that are affected by addiction can often be tense, painful and frightening experience for young children. The family can be put under a lot of stress and people’s emotions get minimized as the pain of what they live in is denied.
The theory says that the child goes through a series of stages where the instinctive energy of the id looks for gratification in different bodily areas: the erogenous zones. If a child is deprived or over-gratified they may become fixated and this will have effects on adult behaviour. The stages are, the oral stage, lasting from birth to 18 months, id impulses satisfied by feeding, mouth is key focus, activities include sucking, then biting. An adults oral stage may be smoking or drinking. Anal stage, from 18 months to about three years old.
Beginning with the oral stage, it is commonly completed between a child’s birth until they are eighteen months old. At this age, the most interaction the infant will receive is through their mouth. During this stage, the infant experiences oral pleasure through eating, sucking and tasting. The infant can also develop a sense of trust through this oral stimulation because of their dependence on those who feed him/her. When the infant becomes aware that he/she is
Strength and mobility develop and children take a small step towards independence. Children of this age group possess a cognitive immaturity, a selfish behavior and a refined sense of play, creativity and imagination. It is also during this phase that Freud’s phallic stage will occur. Equally described to be between the ages of three and six, the phallic stage is the third of Freud’s psychosexual phases, following the anal stage. Throughout the phallic stage, girls and boys become fully conscious of their sexual organs, which are now the erogenous zones, contrary to the anal phase, when the anus was the area of sensibility and sexual excitement.
An Adequate Resolution would mean that a child was able to overcome the conflict in each stage a develop properly. This applies similarly to the other 8 stages. The best way to remember Freud is to remember that anything relating to him will ultimately lead back to sex. His theory contains five developmental stages Age 1: Oral Stage -> A child is obsessed sexual stimulation by occupying the mouth (pacifiers, grabbing items around them and chewing on them, etc.) Age1-3: Anal Stage -> A child desires anal stimulation by bladder and bowel function (is challenged with toilet training and self control) Age3-6: Phallic Stage -> A child desires stimulation of the genitals (Freud claims that at this stage, a child is most likely overcome with lust for his mother or her father) Age6-Puberty: Latency -> Desires to repress sexual and
In The Three Essays, Freud outlines his theory of libido. Freud believed that sexuality was a key component of childrens’ development and that we develop in stages as our sexual energy shifts around the body. Looking at children, Freud claimed that a number of practices which looked innocuous, but were really forms of sexual activity (thumb-sucking being a primary example). The Essays also include the concepts of penis envy, castration anxiety and Oedipus Complex. It is the aim of this essay to explore Freuds’ argument for a psychodynamic perspective on development; establishing whether there is indeed evidence that child development can be linked to sexual urges, particularly an unconscious level.