Eventually the Islamic empire was weakened from civil war and political issues. Their growth was eventually stopped by the Christians in 1492. During the conquest of Syria and Palestine, the Muslims captured the rich Syrian trade center Damascus in 635, which became their capitol and the location of the caliphs. One year later Islam had took control of the Mediterranean coast reaching from Palestine to the Taurus Mountains. Islamic leaders decided not to advance any farther north, because they were opposed to climbing over the Taurus Mountains, and were intimidated by the military strength of the Byzantine that would be in the middle of the empire.
“What set the limits to Ottoman Expansion in this period?” After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, there remained a continuous threat to the powers of central Europe that many had not previously anticipated. The Ottoman Empire spent much of the two centuries after their successful capture of the city in an onslaught of expansion, pushing both eastwards as far as Hungary and westwards to Iraq. However, the reasons as to why the Empire – with its obvious military prowess – doesn’t expand further than these boundaries has remained a question under debate amongst historians and ultimately leads to a number of points which should be considered. The key limitation that faced by the Ottoman Empire was the ultimate autonomy of the Sultan and the subsequent disasters encountered if the leaders had shortcomings, however other factors such as the military revolution in Europe, the financial strain on the Turkish Empire and the nature of their opponents and resources also contributed highly to the limits of Ottoman Expansion. If the expansionary activities of the Ottoman Empire during this period are examined chronologically then it can be seen that many of the conquest states are added to the Empire in groups: Mesopotamia, Syria and Egypt submit to the Empire within the space of three years (1515-1517) whilst Trebizond, Karaman, Otrano and Serbia are all added between 1459 and 1480.
The Ottoman Empire was one of the greatest and most powerful civilizations, reaching the height of its power, in the 16th and 17th century. The empire had controlled areas in three continents and had 29 provinces in total. After Suleyman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire had a series of weak rulers, an inactive economy, and the belief conservatism stopped this Empire from developing even more. These factors caused the waning of the Empire, however, the decline of the Ottoman Empire was also caused by Nationalism and rebels in the Balkans; the New Ottomans and Young Turks that tried to bring the Empire to become what it was at the 16th and 17 century; the German Intervention, and lastly, the Balkan Wars. These factors all contributed to the fall of the Empire and with the pressure of change that the people had to go through.
“The role of individuals was the most important factor in the expansion and dismantlement of the British Empire in Africa 1870-1980” There are many different factors that caused the expansion and dismantlement of the British Empire in Africa during 1870-1980. As a result of British New Imperialism and the creation of Germany in 1871, Africa became a hotly contested area for expansion for European states. Although the role of individuals were vital in securing a governing body in many African countries - such as Nigeria - it was the economic prosperity that opened an opportunity for expansion, coupled with the strategic factors that became increasingly important. The dismantlement of the empire in Africa was mainly due to World War II. The subsequent economic crisis and changing attitudes in colonial countries were the two main issues that caused decolonisation.
Lewis, Bernard What Went Wrong: Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response. Oxford University Press, 2002, 186 pages. What went wrong in the Middle East is hard to focus on one particular point but multiple things over a few hundred years form the early eighteen century to the present day. The Islamic world was struggling with modernization. During early Islam they were the most intellectual and powerful area in Europe and Asia.
In addition they wanted to expand their land. So they decided to fight them to get Jerusalem with the aim of recovering control of the Holy Land from the Turkish Muslims who had seized it. All over Europe great nobles, clergy and peasants began preparing for the trip, believing that if they fought the Muslims Turks they would go to heaven. The specific crusades to restore Christian control of the Holy Land were fought over a period of nearly 200 years, between 1095 and 1291. First Crusade 1095–1099: The Emperor, Alexius I, was worried.
This policy, along with Wilhelm ll’s decision to create a colonial empire, caused rivalry between the major European powers, particularly Britain. In the 19th century colonialism was very popular as major European powers tried to increase their territory, resources and power. By the 20th century the British Empire had 1/4 of the world’s land surface which gave them trade opportunities and transport advantages (McCallum and Ringer, 2005, p237). Wilhelm ll, with a nation only thirty years old, wanted an empire but had missed out on the overseas colonies such as India and Nigeria which belonged to Britain. Germany’s new colonies in China and Africa made Britain concerned.
The crusades affected western culture because of their biblical practices that threatened it. By 1905, Urban II’s call for a crusade was only part of a larer shifting in theological interpretations and justification of warfare: the Reconquista in Spain, for instance, had been under way for over two centuries and was rooted in a re-fashioned understanding of just war theory. The explicit pilgrimage and warfare gave the First Crusade a unique potency that triggered widespread enthusiasm across feudal social boudaries. Pilgrimage was a common practice during Middle Ages and, given the perils of travel, pilgrims often armed themselves for defense. The ideology of the crusade, however, was one rooted in the practice redemptive pilgrimage as well as conquest.
The Impact of the Crusades on History The Crusades, also know as the “Holy Wars”, were fought in the name of Christ and Christianity. Muslims controlled Jerusalem after the fall of the Roman Empire and they allowed religious freedoms to the Christians and Jews that also resided here. In the early 11th century, however, the Seljuk Turks (also Muslim) took rule of Jerusalem and the surrounding Palestine region. The Turks endorsed Islam and ended religious freedoms for both Jews and Christians. The Turks attempted to expand their reign and began to invade the Byzantine Empire.
Constantinople, the capital of the empire, was the main center of a trading network that extended across Europe, Asia, and North Africa. It was also the western end of the Silk Road. Textiles were the most important items of export generating a monopoly controlled by the state. These accomplishments helped the Byzantine Empire become one of the most important empires in history. Because of these accomplishments Constantinople now called Istanbul