For centuries Arabs had fought other tribes, because of their own inadequate resources. But they eventually had to stop, because Islam did not believe in attacking one another. After decades of fighting between Persia and parts of Byzantium, both areas were exhausted. This made it easy for Arabs to conquer. With this conquer, The Pact was made.
Based on the following documents, discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the Muslim empires. What types of additional documentation would help access the rise and fall of the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals? Historical Background Beginning in 1280, the Ottoman Turks rose from a minor frontier state to control most of Southeastern Europe, Southwest Asia and parts of North Africa. For centuries, European Christians refused to ring church bells for fear that local inhabitants would think the Turks had invaded. Starting in the early 1500s CE, in Persia and India, the Safavids and Mughals created powerful states, whose institutions and policies shared many similarities to the Ottoman Empire.
What types of additional documentation would help access the rise and fall of the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals? Historical Background Beginning in 1280, the Ottoman Turks rose from a minor frontier state to control most of Southeastern Europe, Southwest Asia, and parts of North Africa. For centuries, European Christians refused to ring church bells for fear that local inhabitants would think the Turks had invaded. Starting in the early 1500’s CE, in Persia and India, the Safavids and Mughals created powerful states, whose institutions and policies shared many similarities to the Ottoman Empire. Until their decline in the 1700’s CE, these three Muslim states controlled the richest and most developed lands on three continents, and challenged Europeans for
The four thousand soldiers commanded by Amr ibn al-As that invaded Africa brought a religion that would dominate North Africa and West Africa for years to come. Unlike Christianity, Islam, as Iliffe stated: “drew its initial impulse from conquest, but the victors seldom compelled the conquered to accept their faith.” Islam was a gradual process that people would adapt to over time. Christians, along with other religions, were offered sanctuary as long as they paid a certain amount of taxes to the Muslims. Furthermore, most non-believers eventually converted when they were prevented from holding office or were trying to escape the heavy taxation. Iliffe best characterizes the conquest by stating: “The Arab conquest of North Africa led to the transmission of Islam across the Sahara to the West African savanna.” This conquest was aided by the large gold and slave trade opportunities in the area and by the introduction of the camel to the Arab traders.
Hindu and Muslim conflict is basically cause by the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent. Around 630 A.D, Islam was introduced to India through Arab traders. They are peaceful until the 8th century when a Syrian general named Muhammad bin Qasim desiring control of trade routes to India invaded. Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century. With the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate, Islam spread across large parts of the subcontinent.
Before Islam, Arabia was inhabited by nomadic peoples and had small village based agricultural developments. It was next to two other powerful civilizations and thus did not play a big role. However, once Islam was adopted, it rapidly spread to large parts of Asia, Africa, and even Europe. I argue that between 622 and 1450, Islam spread throughout the Middle East and other parts of the world through trade and military conquest. However, after its spread, its ideas were changed to fit the already present belief systems of the people living there.
The First Crusade and the Propagation of Religion The First Crusade was a military attempt by Roman Catholic Europe to regain control over the Holy Lands of Jerusalem, in which the Muslims had taken control of in 661. During this crusade, knights and peasants from many areas of Western Europe went on this pilgrimage, first stopping at Constantinople and then continuing on to Jerusalem. In the group of crusaders, the peasants greatly out numbered the military knights. Many crusaders did not make it the long journey, and the lasting crusaders were mostly the knights, as they were better trained and prepared for such combat. Once the Knights reached Jerusalem, they took control by ransacking every building and torturing and killing almost all of the 60,000 unarmed civilians living in Jerusalem.
Over the following 150 years the extent of the Al Saud territory fluctuated. However, between 1902 and 1927, the Al Saud leader, Abdul Aziz, carried out a series of wars of conquest which resulted in his creation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932. Since 1932, Abdul
Muhammad born in Mecca in 570, in the minority group of the Hashemites, began receiving his divine revelation around 610 AD. He began spreading the word of God. For 13 years, Muhammad and his followers have been persecuted by the Quraysh. Because of that conflict, Muslims migrated to Medina. Later in 630, Mekkah fell
The Abbasid dynasty came to power as the third of the Islamic caliphates through a religiously and politically motivated movement “on the River Zab, south of Mosul in northern Iraq, in February 750”. Economic, political and social grievances, such for example like high taxation, discrimination of Non-Arabs and an unfair administration has led to the Umayyads’ collapse, whose seat of the Caliphate was in Damascus, and the Abbasids’ rise of power. The Abbasids won the encouragement of the Shiite Muslims against the Umayyad rule by temporarily converting to Shia Islam. But as soon as the Abbasids managed to gain the power they embraced the Sunni Islam and disavowed any support for the Shia beliefs which lead to many conflicts. The Abbasid era saw the full integration of new converts, both Arab and Non-Arab into the Islamic community.